2018 PHMSA Hazardous Materials Safety Research and Development Forum — Day 1

2018 PHMSA Hazardous Materials Safety Research and Development Forum — Day 1


RICK: AGAIN, I INTRODUCE MYSELF.
I AM RICK BOYLE. WHAT WE ARE LOOKING FOR TODAY IS
COME MY ASSOCIATE ADMINISTRATOR BILL SPOONER SAID, I WANT YOU TO
EMPHASIZE, WE WANT THE FEEDBACK FROM THE AUDIENCE.
WE’RE NOT DICTATING TO YOU AND TELLING YOU THIS IS WHAT WE ARE
DOING AND WE HOPE YOU ENJOY IT. WE NEED YOUR FEEDBACK.
WE CAN ADDRESS THE PROGRAM. WHEN YOU SEE PRESENTATIONS TODAY, WE CAN ADJUST THOSE
PROBLEMS IF THEY ARE INCOMPLETE, IF THEY NEED MORE DIRECTION.
WE CAN ADJUST PROGRAMS. WE CAN ADD PROGRAMS IN NEXT
YEAR’S PLANS, BUT WE NEED TO KNOW WHAT YOU WANT.
IT IS YOUR PROGRAM AND WE NEED TO RUN THAT.
EARLY ON, WE HAVE SOME INTRODUCTORY PROGRAMS.
YOU CAN ASK ALL THE PRESENTER QUESTIONS.
WE WILL GO OVER THE PROGRAM IN THE MORNING.
IF IT IS NOT OPERATING IN A WAY YOU UNDERSTAND OR LIKE, PLEASE
GET ME COMMENTS AND WE WILL ADJUST THAT. AS WE GET INTO THE
PRESENTATIONS, WE WANT TO TAKE YOUR COMMENTS BOTH TO FIX THE
PROGRAM AND ADJUST THE PROGRAM, BUT ALSO, WE WILL BE TAKING
NOTES TO DEVELOP NEW PROJECTS, WHICH WILL THEN BE DISCUSSED IN
SMALL GROUPS TOMORROW, AS WELL AS OTHERS.
THAT GIVES YOU AN OVERVIEW OF THE MEETING.
WITH THAT, I WOULD LIKE TO START WITH SOME OPENING AND
ADMINISTRATIVE REMARKS. THE FIRST ONE WILL BE OUR ADMINISTRATOR OF THE PIPELINE
AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, SKIP ELLIOTT.
SKIP IS THE ADMINISTRATOR AND BRINGS HANDS-ON EXPERIENCE.
AFTER RETIRING FROM CSX TRANSPORTATION, HE WAS VICE
PRESIDENT OF THE PUBLIC SAFETY, HEALTH, AND SECURITY. I THINK I READ THAT INCORRECTLY.
SKIP HAS MORE THAN 40 YEARS OF EXPERIENCE IN THE BOARDROOM, ON
CAPITOL HILL, IN STATEHOUSES, AND STATE HALLS.
HE WAS A PIONEER OF THE DIGITAL AGE, DEVELOPING AND AND LIMITING
COMPUTER-BASED TOOLS TO ASSIST EMERGENCY RESPONSE OFFICIALS,
FIRST RESPONDERS, AND HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL IN PREPARING
FOR AN MITIGATING HAZMAT AND SECURITY INCIDENTS.
I TURN IT OVER TO OUR ADMINISTRATOR, STEVE ELLIOTT.
[APPLAUSE] SKIP: I THINK — STEVE: I THINK RICK — I TURN IT OVER TO OUR ADMINISTRATOR, SKIP ELLIOTT.
RICK:SKIP: I THINK RICK TOOK MY SPEECH.
A GREAT PLEASURE TO BE HERE. A COUPLE OF COMMENTS BEFORE I GET INTO MY FORMAL REMARKS. I EXPECTED TO SEE MORE OF A FULL
HOUSE. WHEN I WAS SITTING HERE MANY
YEARS AGO, WHEN I WAS DOING UNDERGRADUATE WORK AT INDIANA
UNIVERSITY, I HAD THE UNFORTUNATE NECESSITY OF TAKING
A SATURDAY MORNING LECTURE CLASS.
THIS LOOKS LIKE A SATURDAY MORNING LECTURE CLASS AFTER A
FRIDAY NIGHT BASKETBALL GAME. SO HOPEFULLY IT WILL FILL IN A LITTLE BIT.
AND IN THIS ROOM PARTICULARLY, THIS IS AN ODD POSITION.
I AM USED TO SITTING AND TESTIFYING.
I AM NOT USED TO BASICALLY STANDING IN FRONT OF YOU IN A
MUCH LESS FORMAL KIND OF SITUATION. I AM ALSO
VERY HAPPY TO SEE SOME OF MY GOOD COLLEAGUES HERE
TODAY. 40 YEARS WAS A WONDERFUL
OPPORTUNITY FOR ME. BUT I HAVE TO TELL YOU THAT I
HAVE BEEN THRILLED IN MY LITTLE OVER SIX MONTHS TO BE THE
ADMINISTRATOR AT PHMSA. I ALWAYS KNEW IT WAS GOOD IN MY
TIME IN THE RAILROAD, DEALING WITH PHMSA, BUT IT WAS NOT UNTIL
I CAME ON BOARD THAT I REALIZE HOW GOOD THE STAFF AT PHMSA WAS.
I WILL BE THE FIRST TO TELL YOU — IMAGINE THIS, AFTER 40 YEARS
WORKING IN A RAILROAD INDUSTRY THAT MOVED QUICKLY — THINGS
MOVE A LITTLE SLOWER IN GOVERNMENT. BUT I HAVE
FOUND I HAVE BECOME A MORE PATIENT PERSON BECAUSE OF
THAT. WE MOVE ON. THANK YOU FOR YOUR KIND
INTRODUCTIONS. ANOTHER ONE THING YOU WOULD
THINK, THAT AS THE ADMINISTRATOR, THINGS WOULD PAY
ATTENTION. AT PHMSA, PEOPLE HAVE A HARD
TIME UNDERSTANDING THAT MY LAST NAME IS SPELLED WITH WTO T —
WITH TWO T’S. EVEN IN MY NAME TAG, SOMEONE HAS
ANGST IN THE SECOND T. IF YOU THINK THE INDUSTRY OF
ROLE COMES WITH SOME KIND OF GREAT APLOMB, IT DOES NOT.
I AM PLEASED TO BE WITH YOU ALL HERE TODAY TO TALK ABOUT THE
OFFICE OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY’S RESEARCH AND DEVELOP
PROGRAM, WHICH IS ESSENTIAL TO OUR REASON FOR BEING HERE AT
PHMSA. AT THE GOAL OF PERFECTION, BY
DEFINITION, IS MAXIMUM. THEREFORE, IT WILL NEVER BE
REACHED BY CONCEPCION AND ENFORCEMENT OF MINIMUM
STANDARDS. WE ARE MAKING — RULEMAKING AND ENFORCEMENT ARE DEFENSIVE.
I WAS TALKING EARLIER ABOUT WATCHING THE YANKEES PLAY
TONIGHT, BUT I AM A BASEBALL FAN.
AND I THINK OUR PITCHING STAFF — I THINK OF ENFORCEMENT AS A
PITCHING STAFF. INSPECTIONS AND INVESTIGATION
FOLLOWING EFFORTS WITH OUR TEAM IS THE FIELD, THE INFIELD AND
THE OUTFIELD. CONSIDERING THE MANY MILLIONS OF
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SHIPMENTS AND THE LOW INCIDENCE OF ADVERSE
EVENTS, I WOULD LIKE TO NOMINATE THE ENTIRE PHMSA STAFF FOR GOLD GLOVE AND CY YOUNG AWARDS ALL
AROUND, BECAUSE I THINK THEY WORK AREA HARD TO TRY TO ENSURE
THAT WE MAINTAIN A HIGH LEVEL OF SAFETY EVERY DAY. [APPLAUSE]
SKIP: THANK YOU. THIS IS ESPECIALLY TRUE CONSIDERING THAT THE THING WE
PLAY DEFENSE AGAINST IS NOTHING LESS THAN A UNIVERSAL TREND
TOWARD DISORDER. ONE PIONEER OF CHAOS THEORY
DESCRIBES THIS ATTEMPT TO CHARACTERIZE REALITY AS “WHEN
THE PRESENT DETERMINES THE FUTURE, BUT THE APPROXIMATE
PRESENT IS NOT DETERMINED — DOES NOT DETERMINE THE
APPROXIMATE FUTURE.” WHEN COMPETING WITH THE NATURE
OF REALITY, ONE NEEDS BOTH DEFENSE AND OFFENSE.
OUR R&D EFFORT IS DESIGNED TO REVEAL SUBSTANCE, METHODS,
PROCESS, AND PROCEDURES THAT WILL MAXIMIZE SAFETY, AND THAT
IS WHERE WE GET TO PLAY OFFENSE AT PHMSA.
PHMSA HAS A RESEARCH AND DEVELOP
AN PROGRAM BECAUSE SAFETY IS A MOVING TARGET.
I THINK WE ALL KNOW THAT. TO FULFILL OUR MANDATE, IT IS
ESSENTIAL TO CONSTANTLY ADAPT TO AUTOMATION, IMAGING, MATERIAL
SCIENCES, MODES OF TRANSPORT, PACKAGING, AND OTHER
RAPIDLY-EVOLVING TECHNOLOGIES. EVEN THE MATERIALS THAT WE
REGULATE ARE A MOVING TARGET. IT IS PERHAPS NOT SURPRISING
THAT RULES FOR SHIPPING LITHIUM BATTERIES ARE STILL CHANGING,
CONSIDERING THEY WERE JUST INVENTED A LITTLE LESS THAN 40
YEARS AGO. THE NEED FOR PUSHING THE BOUNDS
OF KNOWLEDGE TO SERVE SAFETY IS ONGOING, AND LARGE, AND
IMPORTANT. AND WHILE INDUSTRY CONDUCTS
RESEARCH OF ITS OWN, IT IS SO FOCUSED ON SEVERAL COMPETING
GOALS. RESEARCH FOCUSED SOLELY ON
SAFETY IS AN INHERENTLY GOVERNMENT FUNCTION.
AND PHMSA R&D EFFORTS COMPRISE ONE OF THE RELATIVELY FEW
PROGRAMS DESIGNED TO ACHIEVE IT. AS WE WAGE THIS OFFENSE, WE ARE MINDFUL THAT BUDGET CONSTRAINTS
MEAN WE ONLY GET SO MANY AT PLATE APPEARANCES. TO STEWARD THOSE SCARCE
RESOURCES FOR MAXIMUM IMPACT, AND SEEK WAYS TO MAXIMIZE AND
EXPLOIT LEVERAGE, WE MUST GENERATE AN OUTSIZE IMPACT,
COMPARED TO ARE ASSOCIATED COSTS.
ONE RECENT SUCCESS IN THIS DIFFICULT LEVERAGING IS THE
LITHIUM BATTERY SAFETY PROJECT THAT PHMSA EXECUTED IN CONCERT WITH THE NAVAL RESEARCH
LABORATORY AND THE NAVAL SURFACE WARFARE SERVICE. THIS ONE PROJECT RESULTED IN
BETTER GUIDANCE FOR SHIPPERS, OF ELEMENT OF SAPER — SAFER
PACKAGING MATERIALS, AND A SYSTEM THAT CAN TEST THE HEALTH OF BATTERIES IN TRANSPORT.
I WAS AT A MEETING JUST YESTERDAY WITH A NUMBER OF THE
STAFF FOLKS FROM PHMSA THAT YOU SEE HERE TODAY, DOING EVERYTHING
IN MY POWER TO EXPLAIN THIS LEVERAGE, SEEKING TO PROTECT THE
FUNDING FOR FUTURE RESEARCH AND DEVELOP EFFORTS.
IT IS MY JOB TO KEEP THE PLATE APPEARANCES COMING, AND IT IS
YOUR JOB TO KEEP HITTING THE BALLS OUT OF THE PARK.
I WANT TO THANK YOU ALL FOR THAT
— ALL THAT YOU DO AND ALL YOU ARE GOING TO KEEP DOING TO MAKE
PHMSA THE MOST INNOVATIVE SAFETY
TRANSPORTATION AGENCY IN THE WORLD.
I WISH YOU ALL THE VERY BEST OF LUCK, AND GOOD PARTICIPATION
TODAY AND TOMORROW. PLEASE KNOW THAT IF YOU EVER
NEED TO SPEAK TO ME OR MY STAFF, LET US KNOW.
WE ARE HERE TO HELP. WE ARE HERE TO WORK TOGETHER TO
TRY TO MAKE THE TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND
ENERGY PRODUCTS AS SAFE AS HUMANLY POSSIBLE.
CONGRATULATIONS ON YOUR EFFORTS, YOUR GOOD WORK, AND I LOOK
FORWARD TO TALKING TO MORE OF YOU. THANK YOU. [APPLAUSE] RICK: AND AFTER ONE SPEAKER, WE ALREADY HAVE A CHANGE.
IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS FOR MR. ELLIOTT, WE WILL TAKE THEM NOW. HIS SCHEDULE IS NOT GOING TO
PERMIT HIM TO STAY HERE THROUGH THE LUNCH PERIOD.
IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS, HE WILL TAKE THEM NOW.>>THEY ARE ALL TOO EASY, RICK.>>WHAT IS THE R&D BUDGET FOR [INDISCERNIBLE]>>ONE SECOND. WE ARE GETTING THE MIC. RICK: THE QUESTION WAS — SKIP:
THE QUESTION WAS, WHAT IS THE RESEARCH BUDGET FOR THE OFFICE
OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY. SINCE WE ARE IN THE PROCESS OF
TRYING TO UNDERSTAND FOR THE UPCOMING FISCAL YEAR WHAT WE ARE
GOING TO ASK FOR, AND SINCE WE LOOK AT HOW WE CAN MOVE THOSE
RESEARCH DOLLARS BACK AND FORTH BETWEEN THE PIPELINE AND THE
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SIDE , WE ARE
PROBABLY LOOKING AT AN AMOUNT THAT IS A LITTLE — RIGHT AROUND
THE $12 MILLION MARK. WHICH, AGAIN — ABOUT SIX MONTHS
AGO, IN MY CONFIRMATION HEARING,
I TALKED ABOUT MY OWN PERSONAL BELIEF ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE OF
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT. I THINK I LEARNED MY R&D LESSONS
FROM THE LAST 10 YEARS OF MY CAREER IN THE RAILROAD INDUSTRY.
I THINK THE MOST EXCITING THING TO ME ABOUT THAT IS HAVING SPENT
ENOUGH TIME ON THE RAILROAD, AND
COMING FROM THE PAPER RAILROAD, BEFORE WE HAD COMPUTERS, BEFORE
WE HAD ANYTHING OTHER THAN PIECES OF PAPER.
BUT THEN TO SEE WHAT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT DID FOR THE RAILROAD INDUSTRY IN THE AREA OF
SAFETY — IT IMPROVED OVER THE YEARS. AT THE LAST 10 YEARS
I WAS THERE WAS AMAZING. I AM ONE OF THOSE PEOPLE THAT
REALLY BELIEVES THERE IS A PERFECT STORM OF SAFETY OUT
THERE. AND IT IS GOING TO REQUIRE MORE
AND MORE RESEARCH DOLLARS. IT IS GOING TO CREATE MORE
INNOVATION, MORE TECHNOLOGY, THAN EVER BEFORE, TO MAKE SURE
THAT WE GET THAT LAST LITTLE BIT OF SAFETY.
A COUPLE DAYS AGO, SOME OF YOUR COLLEAGUES FROM THE AEROSOL
PACKAGING INDUSTRY WERE HIM, AND I SPENT A LOT OF TIME TALKING TO
— AS THE ADMINISTRATOR, YOU SPEND MOST OF YOUR TIME DOING
WITH PIPELINE ISSUES, NOT SURFACE TRANSPORTATION.
EVERYBODY TALKS ABOUT 99.9999% SAFETY. THE FACT IS, IT IS GOING TO TAKE
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT — IT IS GOING TO TAKE AUTOMATION AND
TECHNOLOGY — TO GET THAT LAST LITTLE BIT.
WE ARE TO THE POINT NOW, AND I MENTIONED IT IN THE COMMENTS —
WE ARE TO THE POINT WHERE IT IS THOSE VERY INFREQUENT OCCURRING,
BUT HIGH CONSEQUENCE INCIDENTS, THAT WE ALL HEAR ABOUT.
THOSE ARE THE ONES THAT DRIVE ONEROUS REGULATIONS NONE OF US
WANT. I CERTAINLY DON’T WANT THAT.
I WILL KEEP FIGHTING AND SCRAPPING FOR MORE R&D DOLLARS.
I THINK, RIGHTFULLY SO, WE FOCUS
A LOT ON, IS INDUSTRY PULLING THEIR FAIR SHARE WHEN IT COMES
TO R&D? WHAT I THINK THE TEAM YESTERDAY
AT OUR MEETING SHOWED THE COLLABORATIVE NATURE OF PHMSA’S
COLLABORATION — PHMSA’S RESEARCH, AND A LOT OF OUR R&D
IS MULTIMODAL. IT DOES NOT JUST HELP IN THE
SURFACE TRANSPORTATION HAZMAT SIDE. IT DOES HELP IN A LOT OF
DIFFERENT WAYS. WE HAD GOOD DISCUSSION ABOUT
SOME OF THE NEW CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FOR TANK CARS.
I AM EXCITED ABOUT THAT. IN THE SCHEME OF THINGS, IT IS
ENOUGH TO ALLOW US TO CONTINUE TO FOCUS ON SOME VERY CRITICAL
SAFETY, RESEARCH, AND DEVELOPMENT EFFORTS.
BUT I AM GOING TO KEEP KICKING FOR A LITTLE BIT MORE. SORRY
THAT I ELABORATED, BUT YOU ASKED A QUESTION THAT IS NEAR
AND DEAR TO MY HEART. YOU BET. ANYONE ELSE?>>IS THERE A — IS THERE A
PROHIBITION FROM SETTING UP A REGULATORY AND INDUSTRY
PARTNERSHIP, IF YOU WILL, FOR R&D QUESTION MARK SPECIFICALLY
WHAT I MEAN IS, CAN WE SET SOMETHING UP WHERE PROPOSED
RESEARCH PROCESSES AND PROJECTS WOULD BE DONE BY A JOINT,
SHEPHERDED — CONTROLLED BY PHMSA, OF COURSE — COST WISE,
SHEPHERDED BY THE INDUSTRY? IF THE TANK PEOPLE WANT A
SPECIFIC PROJECT, IT IS NOT IN YOUR BUDGET, AND THEY HAVE GOT
THE MONEY, AND YOU GUYS CAN SHEPHERDED LIKE OVERSEEING IT —
THE STANDARDS ARE WHAT WE CARE ABOUT.
THE RESULTS ARE WHAT WE NEED. THE POINT IS, IF WE WAIT FOR THE
BUDGETING CYCLE TO GO THROUGH THE HIGHER PRIORITIES THAT YOU
HAVE MIGHT NOT BE WHAT INDUSTRY NEEDS.
THEN WE DO A PUBLIC/PRIVATE RESEARCH PROCESS?
SKIP: I THINK THERE ARE ALREADY GOOD EXAMPLES OF COLLABORATIVE
SHARED FINANCING RESEARCH. BUT I THINK THERE IS ALWAYS MORE
THAT CAN BE DONE. AND I THINK THE STAFF HERE, AND THE LEGAL TEAM BACK AT PHMSA, I
THINK WE ARE ANXIOUS TO — ESPECIALLY AS WE COMPETE FOR
FEWER AND FEWER RESEARCH DOLLARS, I THINK WE ARE EXCITED
AND ANXIOUS TO LOOK AT ANY NEW COST-SHARING OPPORTUNITY.
I CAN NEVER GUARANTEE, WHEN IT GOES TO THE FILTERS, THE
OUTCOME, BUT I THINK WE DID A VERY GOOD JOB YESTERDAY OF
SHOWING HOW PHMSA, MAYBE MORE THAN A LOT OF OTHER MODES, MAYBE
USES THIS CROSS AGENCY COME CROSS INDUSTRY, CROSS SECTOR
THEM YOU — CROSS-ACADEMIA TYPE OF RESEARCH.
IF YOU HAVE ANY IDEA OF HOW WE CAN DO THAT, LET US KNOW.
I CANNOT GUARANTEE THE OUTCOMES. I AM SURE THERE ARE CHECKS AND
BALANCES I AM NOT AWARE OF. IS THERE A QUESTION OVER HERE?>>GOOD MORNING. I AM JULIE HACKMAN WITH THE
PYROTECHNICS ASSOCIATION. I HAVE NOT HAD THE OPPORTUNITY
TO MEET WITH YOU YET, BUT LOOK FORWARD TO WORKING WITH YOU.
I WANT TO THANK YOU FOR YOUR SUPPORT OF THE R&D PROGRAM.
YOU KNOW, WE ARE A TINY INDUSTRY, BUT WE ARE HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS, AND WE MAKE UP THE LARGE VOLUME OF APPROVALS THAT
PHMSA HAS TO PROCESS EVERY DAY. I JUST WANT TO EXPRESS MY
GRATITUDE FOR THE R&D PROJECTS THAT HAVE BEEN DONE THAT IMPACT
FIREWORKS AND EXPLOSIVES, BECAUSE THEY HAVE BEEN EXTREMELY
HELPFUL TO US. AND IN PARTICULAR, IN MOVING OUR
STANDARD 87 — ONE FORWARD — 87-1 FORWARD.
WE HAVE UNDERGONE A MASSIVE REVISION WITH PHMSA’S MATERIALS
TEAM AND FOLKS IN ENERGETIC MATERIALS.
WE ARE LOOKING FORWARD TO THAT DOCUMENT BEING APPROVED IN THE
NEAR FUTURE. FOR SMALL INDUSTRIES LIKE OURS, THIS R&D PROGRAM IS CRUCIAL, AND
WE APPRECIATE YOUR SUPPORT AND THE GREAT WORK OF THE PHMSA
TEAM. SKIP: THANK YOU, JULIE. WHEN I CAME TO PHMSA, I LEARNED
EARLY ON — I WAS SURPRISED JUST HOW BUSY YOU KEEP THE STAFF.
AND I THINK IT IS JULY AND MAYBE
NEXT MONTH I AM TRAVELING TO A FIREWORKS MANUFACTURING SITE.
THAT IS EXACTLY RIGHT. SO I LOOK FORWARD TO THAT
OPPORTUNITY. NOW THEY ARE LETTING ME OUT OF
THE OFFICE. NEXT WEEK I AM GOING UP TO SEE A
PIPELINE INSTALLATION SITE SO I CAN JUMP IN THE DIRT AND BE
HAPPY AGAIN. WELL, LISTEN, I AM GOING TO HEAD
BACK TO THE OFFICE AND TAKE CARE OF SOME THINGS, INCLUDING DO SOME FOLLOW-UP FROM OUR MEETING
YESTERDAY ABOUT R&D. BUT AGAIN, CONGRATULATIONS ON
ALL THE GOOD WORK. NEVER STOP PUSHING THE ENVELOPE.
I REALLY DO HAVE A SOFT SPOT IN MY HEART ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE OF
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT. I MAY BE LONG TENURED, BUT I AM
SMART ENOUGH TO KNOW THAT THIS IS REALLY WHERE THE FUTURE IS IN
SAFETY. SO CONGRATULATIONS TO ALL YOU
DO. THANK YOU. [APPLAUSE] RICK: AND IF YOU HAVE ANY
FURTHER QUESTIONS FOR SKIP OR YOU THINK OF SOMETHING OVER THE
BREAK, FEEL FREE. WE CAN SUBMIT THEM.
WE WILL GET THEM TO SKIP AND HE WILL BE GLAD TO RESPOND.
OR WE WILL DRAFT UP THE RESPONSE AND GET IT TO YOU.
JUST BECAUSE HE LEAVES DOES NOT MEAN HIS STORE IS CLOSED AND YOU
DO NOT GET TO TALK TO HIM ANYMORE.
OUR NEXT SPEAKER, UP FROM THE PROGRAM OFFICE IN THE PIPELINE
AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION — WHAT WE ARE
LOOKING AT IS, WE TENDED TO BE TOO MUCH THE PIPELINE SIDE OF
THE HOUSE AND THE HAZMAT SIDE OF THE HOUSE.
HE NEEDED AN OFFICE THAT WOULD MERGE THOSE TOGETHER.
THAT IS THE OFFICE OF PLANNING AND ANALYTICS.
KIM CURRY IS THE ASSOCIATE ADMINISTRATOR OF THE OFFICE OF
PLANNING AND ANALYTICS. KIM JOINED PHMSA’S EXECUTIVE LEADERSHIP TEAM AFTER 30 YEARS
AT THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, WHERE SHE LAST
SERVED AS THE MANAGER OF THE FEDERAL CONTRACT TOWERS PROGRAMS.
KIM OVERSEES THE AGENCY’S ENTERPRISE APPROACH TO
REGULATORY PRIORITIZATION, DATA ANALYSIS, VISUALIZATION, AND
ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRY TREND ANALYSIS.
WITH THAT, I WILL TURN IT OVER TO KIM TO GIVE FURTHER OPENING
COMMENTS. [APPLAUSE] KIM: GOOD MORNING. GOOD MORNING.
THANK YOU FOR THIS WELCOME AND REMARKS. I JUST WANT TO MAKE ONE
CORRECTION. IT WAS A FEDERAL CONTRACT TOWER PROGRAM.
I DID NOT HELP IN WELFARE. I SPENT SEVERAL YEARS THERE. JUST CAME TO FANS AT THE LAST
YEAR AND A HALF. AND IT HAS BEEN UNEXCITING — AN
EXCITING ADVENTURE. IT WAS BEGUN TO TRY TO ADDRESS
THE EFFICIENCIES, THE GAPS THAT WERE NOTED BETWEEN MANAGEMENT
AND THE TWO PROGRAM OFFICES. IT HAS BEEN INTERESTING FOR THE
FIRST YEAR AND A HALF. OPA MEANS GRANDPA IN GERMAN, SO
WE MAY CHANGE THAT. I FEEL MY AGE WHEN I HEAR THAT.
WE ARE DEVISE OF THREE DIFFERENT DIVISIONS.
THE FIRST IS PLANNING AND PROGRAM MANAGEMENT.
THAT AGENCY IS RESPONSIBLE FOR ALL OF OUR PLANS, STRATEGIC PLANS, AND OUR RESPONSES THAT
ARE REQUIRED BACK TO OST. WE ARE ALSO MERGING THE
RESOURCES OF BOTH OFFICES TO MAINTAIN AND ENGAGE IN PHMSA’S AGENCYWIDE REGULATORY
DEVELOPMENT PROCESS. AS YOU KNOW, WE HAVE THREE
EXECUTIVE ORDERS WE ARE ADHERING TO. IT HAS CHANGED THE WAY PHMSA
DOES BUSINESS A LITTLE BIT, AND O.P.A. IS THERE TO FACILITATE
THAT PROCESS. THE SECOND IS DATA AND
ANALYTICS. THE IDEA IS TO USE THE DATA THAT
PHMSA COLLECTS TO PROVIDE THE ORGANIZATION A FORWARD LIP
INSTEAD OF BEING SO REACTIONARY. BASICALLY, BEING PROACTIVE.
LET THE DATA TELL US WHAT WE NEED TO KNOW AND WHERE WE NEED
TO PUT OUR EFFORTS AND IT COMES TO THE REGULATORY AGENDA.
AND THEN THE THIRD AREA IS INDUSTRY AND ECONOMICS.
THAT IDEA IS TO USE FORWARD THINKING, INDUSTRY AND ECONOMIC
ANALYSIS THAT WILL INFORM POLICY.
AGAIN, NOT SO REACTIONARY, BUT TAKE THE TIME TO LOOK AHEAD
PRIOR TO BEING REQUIRED TO DO SO.
I KIND OF THINK OF THESE THREE RESPECTIVELY AS THE WHAT, WHY,
AND HOW OF O.P.A. PLANNING AND PERFORMANCE INFORMS
WHAT WE SHOULD BE DOING AND HOW WELL WE ARE DOING IT.
THE DATA GROUP EXPLAINS WHY, AND SUGGESTS HOW IT SHOULD BE DONE.
AND THEN OF COURSE THE INDUSTRY AND ECONOMIC DIVISION PREDICTS
THE ENVIRONMENT IN WHICH THE ACTIVITY WILL BE CARRIED OUT.
THEY DO CLOSELY RELATE. OVER THE PAST YEAR, WE WORKED IN PARTNERSHIP WITH BOTH PROGRAM
OFFICERS TO IMPLEMENT THE PRESIDENT’S EXECUTIVE ORDERS OR
REGULATORY REFORM. WE DEVELOPED A STRATEGIC
APPROACH. THIS HAS BEEN HIGHLIGHTED BY THE
DEVELOPMENT OF A REGULATORY TRACKING FORM.
WE NEVER HAD THAT BEFORE IN THIS AGENCY.
IN PHMSA, A LOT OF THINGS THAT OCCURRED IN PIPELINE WERE JUST
IN PIPELINE, AND THE SAME FOR HAZMAT.
THIS IS AN OPPORTUNITY TO BRING THAT TOGETHER AS ONE
ORGANIZATION. WE ALSO ARE RESPONSIBLE IN OUR
GROUP FOR ALL OF THE AUDITS AND RECOMMENDATIONS THAT THE GAO,
IG, NTSB, AND CONGRESSIONAL MANDATES. WE
HAVE INCREASED OUR TIMELINESS OF RESPONSE IS TO ENSURE THAT WE
ARE NOT ONLY ADDRESSING THE CONCERNS THAT HAVE BEEN BROUGHT
UP, BUT THAT WE ARE PROMPT IN DOING SO.
AND WE HAVE MADE GREAT STRIDES IN THAT AREA.
WE ALSO UNDERSTAND THE IMPORTANCE OF BETTER OVERALL
STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT IN OUR PROCESSES.
AS SKIP MENTIONED EARLIER, A ZERO INCIDENT PERFORMANCE GOAL
IS AN AMBITIOUS ONE. THE ROLE ACADEMIC YET AND THE
RESEARCH PLACE CAN HELP ATTAIN THOSE GOALS.
I APPRECIATE THE EFFORTS OF THIS GROUP IN HELPING TO IDENTIFY THE
NEXT BREAKTHROUGH TECHNOLOGY , OR
INNOVATIVE METHOD FOR SOLVING OUR MOST DIFFICULT HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS TRANSPORTATION CHALLENGES.
I WANT TO THANK SKIP, WHO IS NO LONGER WITH US, FOR HIS
LEADERSHIP EFFORTS, AND TO MY COLLEAGUES IN THE OFFICE OF
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND SAFETY ADMINISTRATION FOR HOSTING THIS
AMD — R&D FORUM. AND THANKS TO ALL OF YOU FOR
YOUR PARTICIPATION. I LOOK FORWARD TO DISCUSSIONS
OVER THE NEXT TWO DAYS. THANKS FOR THE INVITE.
ANY QUESTIONS FOR ME? YES, SIR.>>[INDISCERNIBLE]
KIM: PHMSA 2021 WAS AN INITIATIVE DESIGNED BY THE
PREVIOUS ADMINISTRATION. THE AGENCY IS NOW IN THE PROCESS
OF DEVELOPING A NEW STRATEGIC PLAN. THE
DEPARTMENT HAS ONE, AND EACH AGENCY WILL FOLLOW SUBSEQUENTLY.
BASICALLY, 2021 IS PRETTY MUCH SUNSET. YOU ARE WELCOME.
ANY MORE QUESTIONS? THANK YOU. [APPLAUSE] RICK: JUST WAIT.
A FEW HOUSEKEEPING ITEMS. YOU CANNOT TELL, BUT WE ARE ON THE WEB. IT IS BEING WEBCAST.
IF YOU ARE PARTICIPATING ON THE WEB AND DO HAVE A PROBLEM, WE DO
HAVE AN EMAIL ADDRESS IF YOU WANT TO IN NO COMMENTS IN.
YOU CAN DO IT FROM HERE, TOO. IF YOU HAVE VERIZON SERVICE, THEY HAVE VERIZON OR PETERS
HERE. IF YOU WANT TO SEND IN COMMENTS,
RATHER THAN STAND UP, YOU CAN SEND THEM TO RICK. GUERRERO AT — RICK GURERRERO. IF YOU WANT TO PARTICIPATE IN
THE DISCUSSIONS IT IS RICK. [email protected]
BECAUSE OF THE WEBCAST, WE SET UP THE AGENDA SO PEOPLE COULD
COME AND GO, DROPPED IN AND OUT OF THE WEBCAST. I SEE PEOPLE COMING AND GOING.
WE WANT YOU TO PARTICIPATE FULLY IN THE AREAS YOU ARE INTERESTED
IN, BUT IF YOU HAVE NOTHING TO DO WITH THAT AREA AND WANT TO GO
OUTSIDE AND WORK FROM A COMPUTER, YOU CAN USE OUR
BREAKOUT ROOMS IF YOU WANT TO WORK FROM HERE.
IF YOU JUST NEED TO GO, YOU CAN DROP YOUR NAME BADGE AT THE
TABLE OR KEEP IT FOR LATER. WE’RE NOT GOING TO KEEP WITH BADGES ALL THE TIME.
I WILL DO MY BEST TO GO QUICKLY,
GET US BACK ON SCHEDULE. LET ME GIVE YOU AN OVERVIEW OF
THE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM.
I THINK, AS EVERYONE ELSE HAS DONE, BEFORE I GET STARTED, I NEED TO GIVE A FEW PEOPLE SOME
THANK YOU’S. I APPRECIATE EVERYONE HERE FOR
ATTENDING. WE USUALLY GIVE EVERYBODY 60
DAYS, 90 DAYS NOTICE. YOU CANNOT JUST STOP ON A DIME
AND START TRAVELING. WE DID NOT NEED THAT.
WE PROBABLY GAVE YOU ABOUT THREE
WEEKS, IF YOU WERE LUCKY, SO WE APPRECIATE YOUR ABILITY TO
ATTEND. WE APPRECIATE THE PEOPLE ON THE
WEBCAST. I KNOW IT IS HARD, BUT WE
APPRECIATE YOUR PARTICIPATION. I THANK ALL THE PRESENTERS. WHEN YOU ARE DOING RESEARCH AND
WE SAY, STOP EVERYTHING — PEOPLE MAY QUESTION YOUR WORK
AND IT MAY LEAD TO CHANGES IN YOUR PROGRAM.
I DO NOT NECESSARILY WANT TO DO THAT. WE JUST COME IN AND GIVE PRESENTATIONS.
WE APPRECIATE AT NTSB — IT IS BY DESIGN.
WE SAID WHEN WE SAT IN THE OKLAHOMA CITY ROOM, ITS
CONFERENCE ROOM IN THE MEDIA CENTER — EVERYBODY IS SITTING
RIGHT NEXT TO EACH OTHER. WE SAY, IT IS GOING TO BE HOT IN
MAY AND REAL HOT IN THOSE ROOMS. WE SAID, WE WOULD RATHER HAVE IT
BE SPREAD OUT. WE APPRECIATE NTSB LETTING US
USE THEIR FACILITIES. AND REALLY, I APPRECIATE THE STAFF FOR PUTTING THE CONFERENCE
TOGETHER. IT DOES NOT — AVA CAME UP WITH THE AGENDA.
SHE GOT SOME HELP FROM VEDA AND ME, BUT SHE REALLY RAN THE
CONFERENCE BY HERSELF. WE REALLY APPRECIATE THAT.
WHEN WE SAID, WE NEED STEP TO SIT IN FRONT AND MAKE SURE
THINGS ARE MOVING — THE OFFICE OF POLICY AND ANALYSIS, WE
APPRECIATE SOME OF THEIR STAFF COMING OVER AND HELPING US GET
SET UP. THERE WE GO. I THINK I AM EVEN GOING TO TRY
TO ADVANCE THE SLIDES IN THE RIGHT WAY.
WHAT I WOULD LIKE TO DO IS GIVE YOU A VERY QUICK OVERVIEW OF THE
PROGRAM. I WILL DO MY BEST NOT TO STEP ON
THE LATER PRESENTATIONS, BECAUSE THAT IS THE WAY RESCHEDULED IT.
I WOULD GIVE AN OVERVIEW, AND THEY WOULD START FILLING IN THE
DETAILS. AS AN OVERVIEW, I WILL GIVE YOU
OUR STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK. YES, PHMSA 2021 WENT AWAY. UNTIL A NEW PHMSA 2021 OR WHATEVER IS COMING IN, AND UNTIL
OUR STRATEGIC PLAN IS DONE, WE TEND TO STICK WITH THE SAME
GOALS AND THE SAME OBJECTIVES, FOR A LOT OF DIFFERENT REASONS.
ONE, WE CANNOT CHANGE THEM ON OUR OWN, BUT THEY ARE ALSO TIED TO THE BUDGET SUBMISSIONS THAT
WE MAKE. SO TO JUST CHANGE THEM IN
MIDSTREAM WOULD BE DIFFICULT. YOU WILL GENERALLY SEE THE SAME
TYPE OF THING YOU SAW IN PHMSA 2021.
BUT I AM ALSO GOING TO GO OVER IS THE PROGRAM ASSESSMENT.
WE CONSIDER OURSELVES A NEW PROGRAM.
R&D IN SOME NATURE HAS BEEN GOING ON SINCE I CAME TO HAZMAT
AND IN PHMSA ROUGHLY 25 YEARS AGO. BUT IT WAS MUCH SMALLER.
THAT IS HOW OLD THE PROGRAM IS. DAILY USE TO WORK WITH US, SO I CAN POINT THE FINGER AT HIM AND
MAKE JOKES. BUT WE HAVE GOT AN INCREASE IN
FUNDING, AN INCREASE IN RESPONSIBILITY.
WE HAVE DEVELOPED A BETTER PROGRAM.
KENLEY — KEN LEE IS WITH THE PIPELINE OFFICE AND OVERSEES
THEIR R&D PROGRAM. WE WANT TO THANK THEM.
WE ARE OFTEN CALLED — WE ARE LIKE THE R&D BLACK SHEEP OF
PHMSA. WE’RE JUST GETTING STARTED.
THEY KIND OF TOOK US ALONG. SOMETIMES A LITTLE TIRED BY THE
COLLAR IS A GOOD THING FOR US. HE AND BOB SMITH AND JOSH HAVE REALLY HELPED US AND KEEP US UP
TO DATE. AND JIM MAYER BEFORE TWO MADE HIM RETIRE.
JIM IS LIVING THE GOOD LIFE OUT IN COLORADO.
THEY HAVE BEEN A GREAT HELP TO US.
LASTLY, WITHOUT STEPPING ON OUR CONTRACTS OFFICER IN THE BACK OF
THE ROOM, WHO SAID, DO NOT GET INTO THAT, DO NOT MAKE ANY
PROMISES, DO NOT TELL THEM WHAT THE CONTRACT ACTIONS ARE — I AM
NOT STEPPING ON EVA’S PRESENTATION.
I WILL GIVE YOU A BIT OF OVERVIEW WITH THAT.
I WILL GIVE YOU A LITTLE OVERVIEW OF WHERE WE PLAN TO GO
IN 2018. THE MISSION STATEMENT, I THINK
WE CAN ALL AGREE — I WILL READ IT TO YOU.
— I WILL NOT READ IT TO YOU. WE ARE FALLING HANDLE BEHIND.
YESTERDAY AFTERNOON, I SAID, THIS IS THE FIRST TIME I HAVE
EVER PUT UP THE MISSION STATEMENT AND SAID, I’M LOOKING
FORWARD TO CHANGING THIS ONE. WITHOUT STEPPING ON VEDA’S TOES
— WHEN YOU SEE PUBLIC RISK, I WANT TO START FOCUSING ON
SAFETY. I WANT TO BRING THAT WORD INTO
IT. WE ARE LOOKING TO PROTECT, IN
SAFETY. WHEN WE START SAYING PUBLIC
RISK, WHAT ARE YOU REALLY DOING? YOU WANT TO MANAGE AND IMPROVE
SAFETY. I THINK THE OTHER WORD I AM
LOOKING AT IS “REGULATORY.” WE DO NOT ANTICIPATE EVERYTHING
GENERATING REGULATORY CHANGES. FIRST OF ALL, THE REGULATORY
CYCLE TAKES A LONG TIME. IF YOU LAYER IN A TWO OR THREE
YEAR RESEARCH PROGRAM, OR A THREE TO FIVE-YEAR REGULATORY
PROGRAM, YOU WILL PROBABLY NOT SEE THAT EFFECT IN THE TIME I AM
HERE. I AM GOING TO BE RETIRED. I WILL BE WITH JIM IN COLORADO,
ENJOYING LIFE. WHAT ARE THE A TURN IT GIVES?
ARE THEY NATIONAL STANDARDS, DOMESTIC STANDARDS?
THEY ARE SUCH GREAT IMPROVEMENTS.
WE ARE LOOKING AT METAL COMPOSITES.
CAN WE GENERATE THOSE THROUGH ORGANIZATIONS RATHER THAN
REQUIRING YOU TO USE THEM? CAN WE WORK THEM INTO EXISTING
PERFORMANCE STANDARDS? TO SAY REGULATORY, WE ARE NOT
HAPPY WITH THAT. I THINK THE OTHER WORD WE WANT
TO LOOK AT IS ENFORCEMENT. WE ARE NOT HERE TO SEND OUR
FIELD STAFF OUT TO BE YOU GUYS UP FOR NOT COMPLYING WITH OUR REGULATIONS. IT IS NOT
ALL ABOUT ENFORCEMENT. THAT IS NOT WHAT WE WANT TO DO.
WE WANT TO DEVELOP A STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE.
WE WANT BETTER BUSINESS PRACTICES. WE WANT STANDARDS.
IT IS NOT GOING TO BE ABOUT 50, 100 OF OUR FIELD INSPECTORS
COMING OUT AND INVESTIGATING AND FORCING THEIR WILL UPON YOUR
OFFICE. I THINK THE LAST ONE I AM GOING
TO LOOK AT IS, I LOVE THE WORD ALTERNATIVE OPPORTUNITIES.
I DO NOT LIKE THE RESTRICTION TO TRAINING.
IT IS NOT GOING TO BE JUST ABOUT TRAINING.
WE ARE LOOKING FOR ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS TO EVERYTHING.
WE WANT TO MAKE THAT MORE OF A BROAD TERM.
EVERYTHING IS ON THE TABLE. IF YOU HAVE SOMETHING, IF YOU
HAVE A BETTER MOUSETRAP OR A RHYTHM TO TEST AND RESEARCH THAT
MOUSETRAP, WE WILL TAKE A LOOK AT IT.
SO NEXT YEAR, WHEN WE HAVE THIS FOR HIM, I HOPE THE MISSION
STATEMENT IS A LITTLE BIT DIFFERENT, BUT AT LEAST YOU KNOW
THAT OUR MISSION WILL LOOK TO BE IMPROVING A BIT.
I THINK WHAT YOU SEE IS OUR STRATEGIC GOALS.
THESE DO STILL LINE UP WITH PHMSA 2021. WE HAD A PARTHENON AND FIVE
PILLARS. WE ARE STILL LOOKING AT CONTINUING SAFETY IMPROVEMENT,
CONTINUOUS SAFETY IMPROVEMENT. I DON’T WANT TO SPEAK FOR THE
ADMINISTRATION, BUT I DO NOT THINK WE WILL COME IN AND SAY,
WE DO NOT CARE ABOUT SAFETY ANYMORE.
I THINK THAT IS GOING TO STAY THERE. WE WERE JUST BRIEFING THE
ANNUAL PLAN, AND THEY WERE STRESSING
INNOVATION. I CANNOT SAY WE ARE NOT GOING TO
DO INNOVATION ANYMORE. WE ARE GOING TO RELY ON OLD
THINGS? THEY ARE LOOKING AT, WHAT ARE
YOU GOING TO BRING ME. I THINK WE WILL SEE
PRESENTATIONS ON MORE SMART PHONE APPS.
YOU WILL SEE HM ACCESS, WAS THE WORD WE USE TO USE.
THAT WAS SOMEWHAT SYNONYMOUS WITH ELECTRONIC SHIPPING PAPERS.
WE ARE GOING TO LOOK AT WHAT WE ARE DOING NEXT.
WHAT IS THE NEXT GENERATION PACKAGING?
WHAT IS THE NEXT CLASSIFICATION TOOL?
I THINK INNOVATION IS GOING TO STAY.
PUBLIC STAKEHOLDER AND TRUST, I THINK WE ARE LOOKING AT HAZMAT
SAFETY AS A WHOLE, NOT JUST THE R&D PROGRAM.
WE ARE LOOKING TO IMPROVE THE SAFETY OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL
TRANSPORT. R&D IS A PIECE OF THAT.
R&D IS GOING TO FEED INTO OUR REGULATORY PROGRAM.
WE ARE NOT GOING TO DO IT ALL BY OURSELVES.
JUST TO SAY WE ARE GOING TO HAVE A BETTER STAKEHOLDER TRUST — IT
IS NOT JUST R&D WE ARE REPRESENTING.
IT IS THE ENTIRE ORGANIZATION. CULTIVATE ORGANIZATIONAL
EXCELLENCE AND SAFETY CULTURE. WE REALIZE — WE USED TO GET A MILLION DOLLARS.
I AM NOT GOING TO SAY NOBODY CARED ABOUT IT.
WE KNEW OUR RESPONSIBILITY. WE HAVE TO ACT WITH INTEGRITY.
WE ACTIVATE GOOD PUBLIC STEWARDSHIP WITH MONEY.
WE CANNOT DO SPEND IT ON WHATEVER WE THINK IS A GOOD
IDEA. WE WANT THAT ORGANIZATION AND
SAFETY CULTURE THAT PUTS ALL THAT TOGETHER.
FINALLY, PURSUE OPERATIONAL EXCELLENCE IN OUR PROCESSES AND
DATA. I THINK THAT IS A LITTLE BIT
WHERE WE COME IN. IF YOU LOOK AT OUR OFFICE OF
PIPELINE SAFETY, THEY HAVE THE MOST TRANSPARENT, BEST
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ONLINE. WHEN THEY GET DATA CALLS FROM
WHEREVER THEY COME FROM, THEY ARE ABLE TO POP THAT DATA UP
QUICKLY. THEY HAVE A PUBLIC ACCESS TO IT.
THEY HAVE PRIVATE ACCESS TO IT. THAT IS WHAT WE ARE WORKING TO
DO. THAT IS THE DIRECTION. WE DO NOT HAVE TO BRIEF YOU ON
PAST OR OLDER PROJECTS, BECAUSE WE CAN SAY THEY ARE ALL ONLINE.
YOU WILL KNOW THEM. YOU WILL SEE THE DATA CHARTS,
PIE CHARTS, EVERYTHING YOU WANT TO. IT WILL BE BECAUSE YOU CAN
ACCESS OUR INFORMATION SYSTEM. THAT IS WHAT WE ARE LOOKING FOR.
I THINK THE NEXT TWO TOPICS UNDER THAT THAT ARE REALLY BEING
STRESSED — WE SAID INNOVATION, BUT THE OTHER ASPECT IS
TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER. WE WANT TO RESEARCH EMERGING PRODUCTS, EMERGING MATERIALS,
EMERGING SYSTEMS, AND THEN TURN THEM OVER TO INDUSTRY.
THAT IS A BIT IN THE REGULATORY SENSE.
WE ARE NOT LOOKING TO PUT THEM IN THE REGULATIONS AND REQUIRE
THEM. WE ARE LOOKING TO SHOW THE BENEFITS OF THEM, AND THEN
YOU’LL WANT TO INCORPORATE THEM IN YOUR PROGRAM.
YOU WILL SEE THAT THAT IS A BETTER SOLUTION.
YOU WILL SEE THAT THAT IS A BETTER WAY TO GO, AND YOU’LL
WANT TO PUT THEM IN. WE WILL SEE HOW THEY BENEFIT YOU
IN A PERFORMANCE. THE MATERIALS WE ARE LOOKING AT,
LIGHTER WEIGHT. YOU WILL SAY, I CAN TRANSMIT
MORE MATERIAL BECAUSE MY PACKAGES LIGHTER.
WE ARE NOT LOOKING TO DO END-TO-END RESEARCH. WE COME UP WITH A CONCEPT AND GO
ALL THE WAY THROUGH A PACKAGING REGULATION.
WE’RE LOOKING TO TECHNOLOGY. TURN THE TECHNOLOGY OVER TO
INDUSTRY. LAST, IT IS NICE TO TALK ABOUT
OBJECTIVES, BUT HOW TO THE OBJECTIVES TURN INTO ACTION?
I THINK WHAT YOU WOULD SEE MOST IS OUR CONTINUOUS SAFETY
IMPROVEMENT. YOU ARE SEEING THAT WHERE WE
PICK THE STRATEGIC AREAS WITH RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT,
AND TECHNICAL ANALYSIS. YOU WILL SEE THE ANALYSIS WE
SOLICITED, AND WE PUT UP THE LIST OF PROJECTS. THE ANALYTICS
GROUP LOOKS AT THE ACCIDENTS, THE ACCIDENT REPORTS.
OUR ENFORCEMENT PEOPLE DO ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION.
WE ARE BRINGING ALL THAT TOGETHER AND SAYING, WHAT
SURPRISES DID WE SEE? WHAT DID WE NOT UNDERSTAND?
WE ARE LOOKING TO DO THE ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENTS.
WE ARE LOOKING TO INVEST IN INNOVATION.
I THINK YOU WILL SEE IT AS WE PRESENT IT TO THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY.
WE ARE SPENDING THE MONEY ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGY AND
PACKAGING INTEGRITY. IF YOU ARE IN REAL ESTATE, YOU SAY LOCATION, LOCATION.
IF YOU ARE HAZMAT AND TRANSPORT — TRANSPORTING HAZMAT, WE WOULD
SAY IT IS CONTAINMENT, CONTAINMENT, CONTAINMENT.
IF WE COULD KEEP THE MATERIAL IN THE PACKAGING, IN THE RAIL CAR, THERE IS MUCH LESS CHANCE THAT
ANYBODY WILL BE ADVERSELY AFFECTED.
JUST BECAUSE THE PACKAGE FAILS A CONCOMITANT, — CONTAINMENT, YOU DO NOT WANT TO STAND BY THE
PACKAGE. IF WE CAN CONTAIN THE MATERIAL,
WE BELIEVE THE SAFETY RATE, THE DEATH RATE — ALL OF THEM GO
DOWN. WE’RE LOOKING AT EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES OR MATERIALS. THE NEXT GENERATION NONBOOK
PACKAGING, WE ARE REALLY LOOKING FORWARD, AS WE DISCUSS PACKAGING, AND TOMORROW IN THE
WORKING GROUPS — WE WANT TO FOCUS ON THOSE TWO AREAS.
WE WILL HAVE WORKING GROUPS IN BOTH OF THOSE.
WE WOULD LIKE TO HEAR YOUR IDEAS. THERE ARE NO BAD IDEAS,
NO CRAZY IDEAS. NOTHING IS TOO FAR OUT OF REACH.
IT DOES NOT MEAN WE WILL FIND EVERYTHING, BUT THAT IS A BIG
AREA WE ARE LOOKING FOR, IS INVESTING IN INNOVATION.
THE STAKEHOLDER TRUST, WE WOULD HAVE TO LOOK AT TWO YEARS AGO.
THEY SAID, TAKE US TO THE R&D PROGRAM. MY ANSWER
WAS, WHAT R&D PROGRAM? WE ARE LOOKING TO HAVE MORE
FORMS. WE HAVE TO HAVE A FORUM WHERE WE
ARE SOLICITING IDEAS. BUT WE FEEL IN THE TRANSPARENCY
SIDE, WE NEED TO REPORT BACK OUT. WE ARE PROBABLY LOOKING AT
HAVING A SECOND — WE ARE GOING TO CALL IT A FORUM BECAUSE WE DO
NOT HAVE ANOTHER NAME. SPRING, FALL, WE DO MORE
REPORTING OUT. WE HAVE A CONFERENCE OR SYMPOSIUM, WHERE WE SAY, HERE IS
THE RESEARCH WE HAVE CONCLUDED, AND HAVE PEOPLE COME IN.
WE LOOK AT MORE PUBLIC MEETINGS. ALSO, WE DID R&D BRIEFINGS FOR ANY ASSOCIATION THAT INVITES US.
WE WOULD GIVE R&D BRIEFINGS IN THE PUBLIC FORUM, WHERE WE
CANNOT DO THAT. THE NEXT SPEAKER IS MARKED’ — THE NEXT SPEAKER IS MARK
LEPOFSKY, WHO WILL GIVE US ALL THE RESEARCH THROUGH THE FEDERAL
GOVERNMENT. REALLY IMPORTANT IS, WHAT ARE WE
MISSING? IF YOU ANALYZE THE PROJECTS
GOING ON, WE ARE SAYING, WHAT ARE WE LOOKING AT?
WE ARE VERY INTERESTED IN THAT. THAT IS WHAT WE LOOK AT AS THE
STAKEHOLDER, THAT WE ARE ACTING WITH INTEGRITY.
YOU SEE THE PROJECTS ARE NOT JUST NEEDS THAT I IDENTIFY
MYSELF. THE WEBSITE DEVELOPMENT, WE ARE
CATCHING UP. WE DO HAVE OUR WEBSITE.
WE DO HAVE — THEY EVEN LET ME ACCESS IT, WHICH IS PRETTY GOOD.
THEY HAVE GIVEN THE EDITORIAL RIGHTS, SO I CAN ADD SOME
THINGS. WE NEED TO DO A BETTER JOB AND
PICK UP THE WEBSITE DEVELOPMENT. ORGANIZATIONAL EXCELLENCE — V EDA WILL TALK ABOUT OUR
STRATEGIC PLAN. WE JUST SUBMITTED THE PLAN TO
THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF TRANSPORTATION.
THE SECRETARY WILL PUT OUT A PLAN. HERE IS ALL OF D.O.T.’S RESEARCH.
WE ARE PROBABLY THE LAST CHAPTER.
I THINK PHMSA COMES IN TOWARD THE END.
IT IS BY NO MEANS WHO IS IMPORTANT AND WHO IS NOT.
IT IS MORE THE BENEFITS AWAITING UNTIL THE END OF THE PLAN.
AS WE PUT OUT SOLICITATIONS, AND THERE WAS A FAILURE IN OUR
SYSTEM, AND WE GOT 80 OR 90 PROPOSALS COMING IN, VEDA AND I
AND EVA ARE ALL SMART PEOPLE, BUT WE HAD NO IDEA WHAT THEY
WERE TALKING ABOUT. THE FALLACY OF THE PLAN WAS,
WITHOUT WE COULD DO IT ALL. WE READJUSTED.
WE STARTED BRINGING IN SUBJECT MATTER EXPERTS.
WE REACHED OUT TO THE OTHER SIDE OF THE AISLE. HE RUNS THE ENTIRE ENGINEERING
SCIENCES AND RESEARCH BRANCH, SO HE ALLOWED US TO REACH OUT TO
TOP ENGINEERS. WE STARTED TALKING ABOUT REAL
CARDS. — RAILCARS. HE VOLUNTEERED TO GET US SOME
ENGINEERS THAT COULD HELP EVALUATE PROJECTS.
WE STARTED GETTING INTO POLYMERIZATION AND ENERGETIC
MATERIALS, AND WE HAD NO IDEA WHAT WE WERE TALKING ABOUT.
JOE NICHOLAS’S GROUP OFFERED UP SOME SCIENCES.
IN THE BACK OF THE ROOM, SOMEONE FROM SANDIA.
WE HAD NO IDEA HOW TO DO BURN TESTS.
WE HAVE BEEN VERY, VERY GLAD. I WILL HAVE TO BRING MORE
SUBJECT MATTER EXPERTS IN. WHEN YOU START CONTRACTING
MULTIMILLIONS OF DOLLARS OF RESEARCH, SOMEBODY HAS TO BE
PAYING ATTENTION TO THOSE CONTRACTS, AND MAKING SURE
DELIVERABLES ARE MET AND ACCEPTABLE. WE BROUGHT IN A CONTRACTOR
OFFICER REPRESENTATIVE. THEN ALL THREE OF US ARE
TRAINED. BUT WE ARE ALSO BRINGING IN MORE
PEOPLE TO MAKE SURE CONTRACTUALLY WE ARE GETTING
WHAT WE PAID FOR. WE ARE GETTING RESULTS AS WE GET
THEM. AGAIN, I WOULD LOVE TO TELL YOU ABOUT THE STRATEGIC PLAN, BUT
THAT IS VEDA’S JOB. MANY OF YOU, WE KNOW WE HAVE A
STRATEGIC PLAN. LAST YEAR WAS THE DATE ON THE
PAPER, THROUGH 2017. WITH THE NEW — IT IS NOT THE ADMINISTRATION.
WE JUST NEED TO UPDATE OUR PLAN EVERY FIVE YEARS.
VEDA WILL GIVE YOU AN UPDATE, AND IT MIGHT BE A 2019-2023
PLAN. NOBODY EVER KNOWS. I DO NOT WANT TO STEP ON HIS
TOES. FINALLY — NOT QUITE FINALLY. I DO REALIZE THIS IS WAY TOO
SMALL FOR YOU TO READ. BUT WHAT WE ARE LOOKING AT IS,
WE DID A MATURITY MODEL 18 MONTHS AGO.
WE HAD A CONTRACTOR AT THAT TIME, AND SHE CAME IN AND SAID,
THIS IS HOW YOU ASSESS PROGRAMS. YOU START SAYING, I WANT TO
START BEING A LEVEL THREE AND LEVEL FOUR.
I WANT TO BE A MATURE PROGRAM. YOU HAVE TO ANALYZE YOUR
ORGANIZATION, METHODS, AND PROGRAM OPERATIONS.
WE DID IT, AND THAT DROVE OUR GOALS FOR THE NEXT YEAR TO 18
MONTHS. WE WILL SIT DOWN AND START SAYING, WHERE DO WE WANT TO BE?
AT THE NEXT FORUM, WE WILL BE ONE LEVEL UP.
WE WILL HAVE EVERYTHING AT LEVEL FOUR. WE ARE
DOING SELF-ASSESSMENT AND HOW WE ARE GROWING THE PROGRAM.
POSSIBLY WHEN YOU GET THIS ON THE WEBSITE OR YOU DOWNLOAD IT,
YOU WILL BE ABLE TO REVISIT IT. IT IS A SMALL POINT.
I WANT TO LET YOU KNOW WE ARE DRIVING NEW GOALS. THE BROUGHT AGENCY MOVEMENT,
WHICH YOU ARE TALKING ABOUT — WE PUT THAT OUT IN JANUARY OF 2017.
IT WAS FOR UP TO $9 MILLION OF RESEARCH. EVA IS GOING TO TELL ME, BE
QUIET. WE GOT ABOUT 85 PROPOSALS.
WE ARE WORKING THROUGH THOSE. THOSE WERE THE BASIS THAT WE
DEVELOPED THE BAA. WE DID THE EVALUATION OF WHITE
PAPERS. WE WENT OUT TO MOST OF THE
SUCCESSFUL ONES, THE FINAL PROPOSAL.
WE EVALUATE THE FINAL PROPOSALS AND SELECT.
THAT IN FOUR LITTLE BULLETS IS HOW WE DID IT.
I THINK EVA HAS MORE TO TELL YOU ABOUT, BUT I WILL NOT WALK ON
HER PRESENTATION. I WANT TO GIVE YOU AN OVERVIEW,
BECAUSE THIS IS HOW YOU WILL FIT IN IN TODAY’S MEETING.
WITH YOUR PARTICIPATION IN ANY MEETING ME EVER SHOW UP AT, AND
EMAIL YOU WANT TO SEND HIM, ANY WEBSITE COMMUNICATION — THIS IS THE PROCESS.
WE’RE BRINGING IN IDEAS FROM THE TOP. WHEN YOU SEE THE TRV
, INTERESTED PARTIES — ANYTIME WE DO OUTREACH TO SOMEBODY, GIVE A
PRESENTATION, IF IT IS AN ASSOCIATION, IF IT IS A NATURAL
— NATIONAL STANDARD GROUP, ALL THOSE ARE INTERESTED PARTIES TO
THE PROGRAM. NTSB, WE ARE SAYING IF THERE IS
AN INCIDENT AN ACCIDENT, THEY WILL INVESTIGATE IT AND MAKE A
RECOMMENDATION. THOSE WILL COME IN.
WE ARE WORKING THROUGH THE HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
SUBCOMMITTEE. MARK LEPOFSKY WILL BE THE NEXT
SPEAKER UP. AND WHAT THEY DID WITH THE GAP
ANALYSIS — THE GAP ANALYSIS STARTED WITH THE HAZMAT
TRANSPORTATION INDUSTRY. BUT THEY ALSO SURVEYED ALL THE
FEDERAL AGENCIES AND SAID, WHAT RESEARCH IS GOING ON?
FROM THAT KNOWLEDGE OF TRANSFER,
THEY WERE ABLE TO PUT A GAP ANALYSIS TOGETHER AND SAY, WHAT
IS MISSING IN THIS PROGRAM? THE FORWARD CONTRACT FOR A
PROJECT, WE WANT TO LOOK AT THAT LIST TO MAKE SURE WE ARE NOT
BUYING THE SAME PRODUCT A SECOND TIME.
THE OTHER ASPECT IS, BEFORE WE GO OUT AND SAY, IF THERE IS A NEXT CONTRACTING ACTION, WE WANT
TO GO BACK AND SAY WE ARE ADDRESSING A GAP, ADDRESSING A
PROBLEM. WE’RE NOT DOING RESEARCH FOR THE
SAKE OF RESEARCH BECAUSE WE ARE INTERESTED IN IT.
WHAT WE ARE SEEING IS WE ARE COMING ACROSS THE TOP LINE.
WE ARE COLLECTING RESEARCH NEEDS RIGHT NOW.
THAT IS WHAT WE ARE DOING TODAY. THAT IS WHAT WE ARE GOING TO BE
DOING TOMORROW. WE ARE GOING TO DO EVERYTHING YOU THINK IS NEEDED.
THEN WE WILL WORK ACROSS AND START HAVING MEETINGS WITH OUR
CONTRACT OFFICE AND SAY, HOW DO WE BEGIN TO PURCHASE THIS?
IS IT ANOTHER BROAD AGENCY ANNOUNCEMENT?
IS IT INDIVIDUAL REQUESTS? DO WE DO IT BROADLY, DO IT
NARROWLY? WHAT IS OUR APPROACH? SUPERVISES AND BOSSES AND A
WHOLE BUNCH OF OTHER PEOPLE — WHAT IS THE BEST WAY, AND AT
THIS POINT, THE QUICKEST WAY? RESEARCH, WHEN WE SAY WE HAVE A NEED AND WE CANNOT CONTRACT FOR
IT FOR THREE OR FOUR YEARS, IT IS NOT VERY RESPONSIVE AND IS
NOT A GOOD ALLOCATION OF OUR MONEY. EVA WILL PROBABLY TOUCH ON A LOT OF THIS.
ANYTHING PAST THE 2017 BAA THAT WE ARE WORKING ON NOW, WHEN WE
START LOOKING FORWARD, WE NEED TO INCORPORATE AND IMPROVE THE
SCHEDULING AND LESSONS LEARNED. IT TOOK WAY TOO LONG.
I COULD GO INTO GREAT DETAIL, BUT IT IT IS JUST EXCUSES.
WENT — WE NEED TO SHORTEN IT UP. WE CANNOT CONTRACT IT MONTHS
AFTER IT WAS ASKED FOR. THE NEED MAY HAVE ALREADY BEEN
FILLED. THE RESOURCES THAT WE WILL
PROPOSE , WHEN WOMEN WENT BACK TO
YOU A YEAR LATER, YOU SAID, THAT PERSON HAS MOVED ON TO ANOTHER
JOB. OR THAT IS NOT OUR PRIORITY ANYMORE.
WE LOST VERY GOOD PROJECTS JUST BECAUSE WE DID NOT GET TO THEM
FAST ENOUGH. TODAY, WE WANT TO EXPAND AND
WERE FINE OUR PROJECT AREAS. IS IT STILL RISK MANAGEMENT? IS IT STILL TECHNICAL ANALYSIS?
IS IT STILL PACKAGING? WHAT SHOULD OUR GROUPINGS BE?
WHAT WE ARE GOING TO DO IS, WE WE WILL
LEARN FROM WHAT WAS SUBMITTED IN 2017 AND WE WILL GO TO OUR
MOBILE PARTNERS, THAT IS THROUGH DIRECTLY.
THEY SIT IN THE NEXT BUILDING. WE CAN TALK TO OUR PEOPLE AND GO TO THE FAA.
THEY ARE LUCKY HERE. WE CAN MEET WITH THEM AND TALK
TO THEM. WE ARE DOING ROLLOVER WORK WITH
MOTOR CARRIERS. WE CAN SEE WHERE WE FIT IN WITH
THE OVERALL D.O.T. WITHOUT A NEW STRATEGIC PLAN, —
WITH CONTRACTS , WE WILL MAKE THE
SUBMISSIONS BETTER. WE PUT PEOPLE THROUGH A LOT OF
WORK. SOME OF THE THINGS WE ASKED FOR,
NOT PART OF THE EVALUATION AND WE WANT TO FOCUS MORE ON WHAT
PROBLEM ARE YOU IDENTIFYING AND WHAT DO YOU PROPOSE TO DO AND
NOT WORRY ABOUT THE REST OF IT EARLY ON.
WE WILL WORK THE CONTRACTS AND GET INTO THAT.
THE LAST ASPECT, WE WANT TO BROADEN OUR RESOURCE POOL.
WE WANT TO LOOK AT UNIVERSITIES AND MINORITY — WE WANT TO LOOK AT ASSOCIATIONS.
THIS TOUCHES IN WITH YOUR QUESTION EARLIER, THE
PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS. WE DID NOT SET OUT WITH THOSE
BUT AS WE SAW PROPOSALS COME BACK IN, WE COULD EASILY SEE, NOT SAYING WE GOT SOMETHING FOR
LESS MONEY, WE SAID YOU WILL DO ALL THAT FOR A LOW DOLLAR AND
YOUR, WE SAID HOW IS THAT POSSIBLE AND WE READ THE
PROPOSAL. — LOW DOLLAR FIGURE, WE SET HOW
IS THAT POSSIBLE AND WE READ THE PROPOSAL.
SOME SERVICES THEY DID NOT CHARGE US FOR AN EQUIPMENT, THEY
SAID WE ARE READY HAVE THAT, ALREADY HAVE THE FACILITY AND WE
ARE NOT CHARGING THE GOVERNMENT APPEARED WE SAW SOME OF THE
PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP WITHOUT CALLING IT OUT.
WE WOULD BE INTERESTED IN THAT. SPEEDING UP THE EVALUATION
PROCESS WOULD BE GOOD. THAT IS ONE OF OUR GOALS.
I DID NOT PUT IT AT THE FRONT, TO CONTACT ME EVER, ANYTIME, I
WILL BE HERE FOR FIVE, 10, 15 MORE YEARS UNTIL THEY SEND ME
SOMEPLACE ELSE. I WILL WORK ON THE R&D PROGRAM.
I WILL GIVE YOU MY CONTACT INFORMATION. THE WEBCAST PEOPLE ARE SENDING
THINGS IN AND I WILL PICK THEM UP AND ASK THE QUESTIONS ON
THEIR BEHALF. I COULD TAKE QUESTIONS NOW OR I
COULD LET MARK DO HIS PRESENTATION AND WE COULD TAKE
QUESTIONS AT THAT TIME BEARD EITHER WAY — THAT TIME.
EITHER WAY IS ACCEPTABLE. IT LOOKS LIKE WE WILL LIKE TO GO
ON TO MARK LEPOFSKY AND LET HIM GO OVER THE WORK WE ARE DOING ON
THE GAP ANALYSIS AND PROJECT INVENTORY.
THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME. [APPLAUSE]>>THANK YOU.
WHAT I WANT TO TALK ABOUT — IF WE CAN PULL THE SLIDES UP,
PERFECT. HM10 , LOOKING AT THE CURRENT AND
FUTURE NEEDS PROJECT. IT WAS FUNDED AND SENT TO THE HAZARDOUS MATERIALS CORPORATIVE
RESEARCH PROGRAM. ONE OF THE PROGRAMS WITHIN TRB.
— TRB. PUBLISHED IN 2012.
I WILL TALK ABOUT THE SCOPE. TALK ABOUT THE RESORT
ORGANIZATIONS THAT WERE PART OF THE PROJECT — RESEARCH
ORGANIZATIONS THAT WERE PART OF THE PRODUCT THAT — PROJECT. LOOKING AT THE PRIORITIZATION
FRAMEWORK. AND THAT I WILL TALK ABOUT AND
GIVE YOU A SENSE OF THE PRIORITIZED PROJECTS THAT CAME
OUT. THE PROJECT CURRENTLY IS IN A
REVIEW FACE, WE SAID THAT THE DRAFT FINAL REPORT AT THE END OF
MARCH AND WAITING FOR COMMENTS FROM THE PROJECT PANEL.
THE WAY IT WORKS, THERE IS A TRB STAFF PERSON AND A BROADER
RESEARCH PANEL MADE UP OF INDUSTRY AND GOVERNMENT AND
RESEARCH FOLKS THAT WOULD MANAGE THE PROJECT FROM A TECHNICAL
PERSPECTIVE AND THAT PANEL IS REVIEWING THE WORK. EVERYTHING ARE PRESENT HERE WILL
BE SUBJECT TO CHANGE TASTE ON COMMENTS.
THE SCOPE OF THE PROJECT IS TO IDENTIFY ORGANIZATIONS THAT ARE
INVOLVED WITH HAZMAT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH.
WE TALKED TO A LOT OF ORGANIZATIONS THAT, AS WE TALK
TO THEM, THEY ARE INVOLVED IN HAZMAT TRANSPORTATION, BUT NOT
NECESSARILY DOING ANYTHING THEY WOULD CONSIDER RESEARCH.
WE IDENTIFIED BOTH PAST RESEARCH
THEY CONDUCTED, THINGS THEY ARE DOING CURRENTLY, AND PLANNED
RESEARCH. WE TALK TO THESE ORGANIZATIONS
DIRECTLY. WE SENT OUT MATERIALS TO HELP
THEM GIVE US THE INFORMATION WE NEED. WE TALKED TO EVERYBODY
INDIVIDUALLY. THROUGH OUR PROJECT TEAM. WE ORGANIZED THE PROJECT BY
CONTEXT AND SUBJECT AREAS. THE PROJECT REPORT HAS A BIG
LIST OF THE NEARLY 500 PROJECTS WE IDENTIFIED.
THROUGH THIS WORK. HELPING TO ORGANIZE THE CONTEXT AND SUBJECT AREAS WAS HELPFUL IF
YOU ARE TRYING TO SEARCH AND THE DOCUMENT PUBLISHED ON THE WEB.
IN THE PDF, YOU CAN KNOW WHEN TO
THIS PUBLIC — PUBLISHED AND SEARCH FOR THINGS YOU’RE
INTERESTED IN. WE ASKED THE PARTICIPANTS, THE
STAKEHOLDERS WE TALKED TO TO IDENTIFY THEIR FUTURE RESEARCH
NEEDS. AND THEN WE DOCUMENTED , NOT ONLY
THE GAPS IN RESEARCH THEY IDENTIFIED, WE LOOKED AT
OVERLAPPING PROJECTS TO HELP FOLKS WHEN THEY GO BACK AND LOOK
AT OTHER RESEARCH. TWO PEOPLE ARE WORKING ON
SIMILAR PROJECTS, THEY MAY NOT KNOW ABOUT THE OTHER PROJECT AND
THE OUTPUT MAY INDICATE THEY SHOULD START TALKING TO EACH
OTHER. WE SUGGESTED RESEARCH PROJECTS
TO HELP FILL THE GAPS. WE DEVELOPED A PRIORITIZATION
FRAMEWORK BASED ON THE WORK WE HAVE DONE BEFORE AND WE CAME UP
WITH A LIST OF PRIORITIZED PROJECTS.
TO GIVE YOU A SENSE OF THE ORGANIZATIONS THAT WE ARE
INVOLVED — THAT ARE INVOLVED, THESE RESULTED WITH PROJECTS
THAT ARE IN THE REPORT. THIS SLIDE HAS THE AGENCIES, DHS, EPA, AND WE TALKED ABOUT
OTHER TYPES OF ENTITIES. INTERNATIONAL STATE RELATED
ORGANIZATIONS, SHIPPERS, CARRIERS, AND RESPONSE
ORGANIZATIONS. WE WERE FOCUS ON PROJECTS THAT
ARE CONSIDERED RESEARCH, AS OPPOSED TO IMPLEMENTATION OR
OPERATIONS. WE TALKED TO ANOTHER — A NUMBER
OF ACADEMIC RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS AT OTHER FIRMS,
AND DHS UNIVERSITY CENTERS. THEY PERCEIVED TO GAPS — THE
PERCEIVED GAPS, THESE ARE THE AREAS, 80 INDIVIDUAL GAPS
IDENTIFIED THROUGH THE PROJECT. GAPS THAT RANGE FROM PACKAGING
AND HANDLING ISSUES TO RESPONSE,
PLANNING, EMERGENCY PLANNING, MATERIALS, EQUIPMENT TESTING,
THERE WAS A LOT OF FOCUS ON RISK ANALYSIS.
EMERGING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGIES.
AND SOME OPERATIONS AND INFRASTRUCTURE.
SOME FOCUSED ON REGULATORY OR ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS.
AND TRAINING AND EDUCATION. MANY GAPS THAT FILL IN THE OTHER
CATEGORIES WITH AN EDUCATIONAL OR TRAINING ASPECT ALSO APPEARED
SOME MORE FOCUSED SPECIFICALLY ON TRAINING AND EDUCATION.
THE PRIORITIZATION FRAMEWORK IS ONE THAT IS TO HELP STRUCTURE A
WAY TO LOOK AT THINGS. WE CAME UP WITH THESE EIGHT AREAS.
EACH OF THESE AREAS HAVING DIFFERENT WEIGHT WE ASSIGNED.
IF YOU WILL USE THIS FRAMEWORK DEFINED IN THE REPORT, YOU CAN
CHANGE IT IF YOU DO NOT LIKE THE WAY WE ASSIGNED SOMETHING, YOU
CAN REASSIGN IT TO A DIFFERENT LIGHT.
IN EACH OF THESE AREAS, A RANGE FROM 0% TO 100%, WE MAY WRITE A PROJECT THAT HAS A HIGH RESEARCH
PRIORITY, 100%, IN THIS CASE 25%
OF THE OVERALL SCORE FOR THAT PROJECT. THE RESEARCH PRIORITY
SIGNIFICANCE OF EXPECTED OUTCOME, THE PRACTICAL
IMPLEMENTATION POTENTIAL. HOW EASILY CAN THE RESULTS BE
DIRECTLY IMPLEMENTED, OR DOES IT LEAD TO OTHER RESEARCH?
CLARITY OF DELIVERABLES. IS THIS PROJECT FUZZY AS TO WHAT
THEY ARE TRYING TO GET OUT, YOU MAY NEED PRELIMINARY RESEARCH
BEFORE YOU UNDERSTAND WHAT THE END PRODUCT SHOULD BE.
MAYBE A MULTI-PHASED EFFORT. OR IS IT CLEAR AND CONCISE WHAT IS SUPPOSED TO HAPPEN AT THE END
OF THE RESEARCH? PRIMARY STAKEHOLDER FOCUS.
IS THIS A PROJECT THAT IS DIRECTED ONLY AT CARRIERS OR
SHIPPERS OR REGULATORS CORRESPONDENCE ONE FORCE MY
COMMUNITIES? OR IS IT MORE BROAD AND COVERS
MULTIPLE STAKEHOLDERS? MOTIVE APPLICABLE TO THE COME A
SINGLE MODE — MODE OF CLICK ABILITY
— MATERIAL FOCUS, IS THIS A BROAD, COVERS MOST HAZMAT, ONE
HAZARD CLASSES OR ONE OR TWO SPECIFIC MATERIALS LIKE CHLORINE
OR AMMONIA? PROJECT BUDGET. THE PROJECT TEAM TOOK A STAB, AS WE LOAD UP THE PROJECTS TO
MOVE SOME OF THESE GAPS, REVIEWING THE STEP WE
IDENTIFIED, WE ASSIGNED A BALLPARK BUDGET THAT MAY BE
APPROPRIATE FOR A RESEARCH PROJECT.
SIMILAR TO THE RESEARCH PROJECT STATEMENTS THAT COME OUT OF TRB.
A SIMILAR STRUCTURE. A BALLPARK BUDGET.
WE LOOK AT PRIORITIZATION USING THE BUDGET IN THREE WAYS, WE
WRITE THINGS WITHOUT THE COST FACTOR AT ALL, WE WRITE IT WITH
BECAUSE FACTOR, 15%, AND THEN LOOKING AT A BENEFIT COST RATIO.
NOW, I WANT TO WALK THROUGH AND GIVE YOU A SENSE OF WHAT THESE
PROJECTS — THEY ARE RANKED EXCLUDING COST RANKING. TALK ABOUT EACH ONE.
THERE ARE ABOUT 30. I WILL GIVE YOU A SENSE AS WE GO
INTO THE REST OF THE PROGRAM, SOME OF THE THINGS WE CAME UP
WITH. THE FIRST ONE WE SHORTENED THE
NAME SIGNIFICANTLY. THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY TO
FACILITATE STAKEHOLDER COMMITTEE CASE AND IN RESPONSE TO —
COMMUNICATIONS AND RESPONSE, INTEGRATED SYSTEMS, LOOKING TO
THE FUTURE, WHAT IS NEXT TO PROVIDE INFORMATION.
INCLUDING NOTIFICATIONS AND TRACKING. TO ALL THE RELEVANT
STAKEHOLDERS. CARRIERS, DRIVERS, INSPECTORS, AND OTHER WORK THAT HAS BEEN
DONE. AS PRACTICES FOR INCIDENT RESPONSE, THE OBJECTIVE IS TO
DEVELOP A GUIDEBOOK. RESPONSE AND EDUCATED
RESPONDERS. UNDERSTANDING FAILURE RATES.
LOOKING AT FAILURE RATES AND MODES.
UNDERSTANDING THE IMPACT OF RECYCLED MATERIAL CONTENT.
THIS WOULD CONCLUDE — INCLUDE PACKAGE TESTING.
BEST PRACTICES FOR LARGE STORAGE.
A LOT OF FOCUS ON BATTERY RISKS. THEY ARE INCREASED, ONCE INVESTIGATING BEST PRACTICES.
THE OBJECTIVE IS TO PUT UP A GUIDEBOOK TO FOCUS ON INCIDENT
RESPONSE. ADVANCED TECHNICAL CAPABILITIES
FOR EVALUATION OF INFRASTRUCTURE CONDITIONS.
SENSORS AND UNMANNED VEHICLES ARE HEAVILY USED IN PIPELINE
SECTOR. THERE CONTINUES TO BE ADVANCES IN THAT TECHNOLOGY AND IDENTIFY
CRITICAL APPLICATION AREAS AND WHAT ARE THE IMPROVEMENTS THAT
WOULD MOST IMPACT AS MY TRANSPORT — HAZMAT TRANSPORT? A LOT OF LOADING AND UNLOADING
OPERATIONS, ESPECIALLY WHERE THERE IS NOT PLATFORMS OF
FACILITIES. WHERE EMPLOYEES CAN WALK FROM — THERE HAVE BEEN A LOT OF
FATALITIES. LOOKING AT TECHNOLOGY THAT CAN
KEEP PEOPLE ON THE GROUND AND LET THEM DO THEIR WORK.
IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIAL IMPROVEMENTS TO THE RESPONSE
GUIDEBOOK GUIDELINES FOR INTERNET PROTECTIVE DISTANCES.
THEY BELIEVE THAT THE INITIAL ISOLATION MAY NOT REFLECT THE
CURRENT RESEARCH. THEY MAY OVERSTATE THE DISTANCE OF CONCERN.
THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS PROJECT WILL BE TO REVIEW THE RELEASE
MODELING TO SEE IF ADJUSTMENTS ARE WARRANTED. UNDERSTANDING AND PREPARING FOR
CHANGES IN BATTERY USES, CHARACTERISTICS, AND COMMERCIAL
AND NONCOMMERCIAL TRANSPORTATION.
IDENTIFY NEW APPLICATIONS AND NEW INDUSTRIES FOR BATTERIES.
THIS PROJECT WHAT INCLUDES SURVEYING, HELPING TO UNDERSTAND
THE USES AND WHAT ARE THE BATTERY CHARACTERISTICS NEEDED
TO MEET THOSE USES. THIS IS MORE OF A MARKET
RESEARCH, THINGS TO BETTER PREPARE.
METHODOLOGY AND CRITERIA FOR TESTING.
OTHER THAN LITHIUM BATTERIES, SOME REQUIRE TESTING AND THIS
PROJECT IS TO EXAMINE USEFUL PERFORMANCE ABOUT THE STANDARD UN TEST AND IF THE METHODOLOGY
AND CRITERIA FITS. THE NEXT IS UNDERSTANDING THE
PERFORMANCE OF PLASTIC COMPOSITE.
CONDITIONS REPRESENTATIVES OF ALL THE MODES OF TRANSPORT,
FAILURE MODES AND THE CAUSES OF THOSE FAILURES. THE NEXT ONE IS MESSY OUT OF THE
— METHODOLOGY. A FOR THE FACTORS THAT MAY
AFFECT SAFETY, EVEN IF THE PACKAGE PASSES. IT TESTING. ABUSE BY INDUSTRY OR POTENTIAL
AND FORM REGULATIONS. IDENTIFYING SOURCES AND TYPES OF
CLINICAL HAZMAT AND ASSOCIATED MITIGATION STRATEGIES.
UNDERSTANDING THE TYPES OF MATERIALS AND BUSINESSES
INVOLVED. IT HAS BEEN A FOCUS FOR A WHILE.
TO CONTINUE, THAT WOULD INCLUDE INDUSTRY ENGAGEMENTS TO IDENTIFY
CANDIDATES, STRATEGIES FOR REDUCING.
IMPROVE METHODS TO ASSESS COST-EFFECTIVENESS.
ON RAIL RISK MITIGATION STRATEGIES TO REALIZE MAXIMIZE
ROI. PREDATORY IMPACT ANALYSIS, SOMETIMES INTERNAL INDUSTRY
ANALYSIS ARE DONE IN ISOLATION, LOOKING AT ONE SPECIFIC
MITIGATION ACTIVITY AT A TIME. A LOT OF THINGS YOU CAN DO.
5, 10 DIFFERENT STRATEGIES. WHAT IS THE BEST FRAMEWORK TO
HELP ASSESS WHICH ONE OR TWO OR THREE OF THOSE WOULD BE THE WAS
TO FOCUS ON FIRST? THIS PROJECT IS FOCUSING ON
METHODS TO DO THAT ASSESSMENT AND MAKE GOOD DECISIONS. IDENTIFICATION OF STEEL OR STEEL
PROPERTIES. TO ENHANCE PUNCTURE RESISTANCE.
THIS IS TO BUILD RECENT RESEARCH BY D.O.T. AND THE COLLABORATIVE
RESEARCH PROGRAM. THE REPORT WILL HAVE MORE
DETAILS ABOUT THESE PROJECTS. DEVELOPMENT OF A NO PARKING STRUCTURE FOR ASSESSING AND
MANAGING RISKS DUE TO HAZMAT TRANSPORTATION SUPPLY CHAIN.
BEYOND INDIVIDUAL MODE AND FACILITY RISK ASSESSMENT.
GUIDANCE ON REPORTING AND INVESTING ACCIDENTS IN HAZMAT
INCIDENTS FOUR STATES INCLUDING TRAINING RECOMMENDATIONS.
AND WAYS TO ACHIEVE MORE COMPLETE AND ACCURATE DATA
REPORTING FROM THE STATES. A LOT OF FOLKS MENTION INCONSISTENCY IN THE DATA THAT
COMES IN FROM STATE. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS
OF CURRENT EMERGENCY RESPONSE TRAINING METHODS AND
IDENTIFICATION OF IMPROVED OPPORTUNITIES IN DELIVERY.
THIS IS BUILDING ON PRIOR PHMSA RESEARCH AND ADDRESSES MEASURING
TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS , LEARNING
APPROACHES, AND THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY. THE NEXT ONE IS THE EXPANSION OF
THE ERG TO INCLUDE GUIDELINES FOR ADDITIONAL MATERIALS.
THERE IS A BELIEF THAT THE TOP 125 PRODUCTS USED BY RAIL ARE
NOT NECESSARILY ALL REPRESENTATIVE IN THE ERG.
IF SOMETHING IS BEING MOVED A LOT, YOU WOULD HOPE THE ERG WHAT
HAVE COVERAGE FOR THOSE MATERIALS IN CASE THERE WAS AN
INCIDENT. TAKE A LOOK AT THAT ISSUE AND
SEE IF THERE ARE ANY MATERIALS THAT SHOULD BE RECOMMENDED FOR
ADDITION INTO THE ERG. THE NEXT IS AUTOMATICALLY
PROTECTION TECHNOLOGY FOR USE IN TRANSPORTATION.
THIS IS TO IDENTIFY PROJECTS FOR NEW TECHNOLOGY TO HAZMAT
TRANSPORT AND COULD INCLUDE FIELD TRIALS. THE NEXT ONE IS EXPLORATION OF
ADVANCES IN SELF SEALING TO REDUCE CONSEQUENCES OF
TRANSPORTATION. THIS IS NOT ON HARDENING THE
PACKAGING BUT ON REDUCING THE CLIENT — THE MATERIAL RELEASE.
ANOTHER WAY TO HELP IN SOME WAYS WITH CONTAINMENT.
TESTING METHODS AND CRITERIA FOR
THE CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIAL OF CORROSIVE SOLIDS.
CURRENT TEST METHODS WERE DEVELOPED FOR LIQUID MATERIALS
AND THIS PROJECT WOULD DEVELOP A STANDARD PROTOCOL FOR SOLIDS. NEW MATERIALS RESEARCH ON
TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT. THIS WILL EXPLORE ADVANCES IN
MATERIALS AND INCLUDE LAB TESTING.
IMPROVEMENTS IN METHODS TO TEST AND CLASSIFY HAZMAT.
AN INTERESTING DEVELOPMENT TO CLASSIFY MATERIALS, WITHOUT
EXTENSIVE TESTING, INCLUDING ANIMAL TESTING.
THE GOAL WOULD STILL BE TO HAVE THE TESTS BE NOT OVERLY
CONSERVATIVE. WHEN OTHER APPROACHES HAVE BEEN
PUT FORTH IN THE PAST, THEY HAVE
BEEN VERY CONSERVATIVE. UNDERSTANDING THE POTENTIAL USES, RISKS, AND RISKS
MITIGATIONS FOR HAZMAT TRANSPORTATION’S OUT OF
AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES. A STUDY THAT WILL LOOK AT NEW
SCENARIOS FOR SAFETY AND SECURITY RELATED.
ARE THE USE OF THESE TYPES OF TECHNOLOGIES OR VEHICLES FOR
HAZMAT TRANSPORTATION, OR IN DIFFERENT WAYS AROUND HAZMAT
TRANSPORTATION, GOING TO BE RISKS IN THEMSELVES AND TRY TO
LOOK AT MITIGATION AND RESPONSE STRATEGIES FOR THOSE.
UNDERSTANDING THE RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH TRAINING
TRANSPORT OF MATERIALS. THE NEXT ONE IS METHOD IS
IMPORTANT COMING — INCLUDING ACQUISITION AND USE OF DATA.
THIS HAS BEEN A LONG-STANDING AN
INTERESTING, GETTING MORE COMMODITY FLOW DATA, SOME STATE,
SOME LOCALITIES ARE DONE OR ARE DOING STUDIES.
INVESTIGATING THE POTENTIAL FOR DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARDIZED,
STAY WHITE HAZMAT COMMODITY FLOW AND NOT INFORMATION TO MEET THE
NEEDS OF LOCAL RESPONDERS. IMPROVE GUIDELINES FOR
CLASSIFYING AND PACKAGING EXPLOSIVE WEIGHT COMMODITIES
SUCH AS TRANSPORTATION. THIS REPORT — PROJECT WOULD INCLUDE A LISTING OF DATA NEEDS
. IMPROVED UNDERSTANDING OF AMMONIA RELEASE BEHAVIOR THROUGH
LARGE-SCALE RELEASE TESTING. A NUMBER OF STAKEHOLDERS BELIEVE
THE CURRENT TEST RESULTS FROM THE LARGE-SCALE TESTS MAY NOT
ADEQUATELY REPRESENT THE BEHAVIOR OF AMMONIA RELEASES. UNDERSTANDING THE RISKS
ASSOCIATED WITH TRANSFERRING AMMONIA AND OTHER AGRIBUSINESS
CHEMICALS, AND SORTED MITIGATION STRATEGIES.
THE LAST ONE IS ESTIMATING CONSEQUENCES FROM MULTIPLE
MATERIAL RELEASES AND TRANSPORTATION.
THE EFFORT IS FOR THIS WAS , FROM
THE RAIL PERSPECTIVE, BUT VALUE TO ALL MODES.
THIS WOULD PROVIDE MORE DETAILS. CONSEQUENCE INFORMATION WOULD BE
RELEVANT FOR INFORMING EMERGENCY RESPONSE.
THIS PROJECT IS CURRENTLY BEING REVIEWED. IT WILL BE
— WHEN IT IS FINALLY MADE AVAILABLE, TRB RELEASES AND
PUBLISHES IT, IT WILL BE ON THEIR WEBSITE AND THERE WILL BE
LINKS ALL OVER THE PLACE. THE AREA REPORT, IF YOU HAVE TROUBLE FINDING IT, YOU CAN
CONTACT ME. AND I CAN GET THAT TO YOU.
I GUESS, WHEN THE PROJECT PANEL APPROVES IT, SO THERE WILL BE
COMMENTS FROM THE DRAFT, THE FINAL VERSION, THEN IT GOES INTO
A LONG, MONTHS LONG TRB PRODUCTION PROCESS WHERE IT IS
PROFESSIONALLY LAID OUT. I WOULD IMAGINE THAT WE WILL HAVE TO CONFIRM FROM ME — THE TRB STAFF THAT WE COULD RELEASE
IT TO PEOPLE WHO WANTED WHEN IT IS IN THE FINALLY APPROVED FORM.
BUT STILL NOT PUBLISHED ON THEIR WEBSITE.
THAT IS WHY I WANTED TO TALK TO YOU.
WE CAN TALK MORE ABOUT PROJECTS IN MORE DETAIL AS THE DAYS GOES
ON. — DAYS GO ON. QUESTIONS? A LOT OF PROJECTS.>>IT IS MORE OF A COMMENT THAN A QUESTION.
AS YOU LOOK THROUGH THIS, AS INDIVIDUALS PARTICIPATING, LOOK
AT THIS PRESENTATION BECAUSE I THINK TOMORROW
, YOU WILL SEE THE THREE-PAGE LIST OF PROJECTS THAT
WE IDENTIFY. WE WILL GO OVER THOSE IN SMALL
GROUPS AND SAY, WHAT DO YOU THINK OF THOSE?
GOOD, BAD, VISIONS, SUBTRACTIONS?
WE WILL BE ABLE TO ADD TO THOSE. LOOK AT THIS PRESENTATION
BECAUSE WHERE TRB HAS IDENTIFIED RESEARCH GAPS, YOU MAY SEE THOSE
BECOME STRATEGICAL TOPIC AREAS WHEN WE PUT OUT SOLICITATIONS.
NOT SAYING WE TAKE LONG BUT WHAT
WE HAVE BEEN TASKED TO DO AND WHAT WE WANT TO DO IS SAY, THERE
IS THE PROBLEM AND THERE’S THE GAP. FILL THE GAP.
YOU MAY NOT HAVE THE REPORT , YOU
HAVE A LOT OF THE DETAILS IN IT. TRB SAYS HERE ARE RESEARCH GAPS,
THEY MAY BECOME HAZMAT STRATEGICAL TOPICS.
WHERE YOU SEE THE INDIVIDUAL PROJECTS, WE WILL TALK ABOUT
THEM AND GET YOUR FEEDBACK. BUT YOU MAY SEE THOSE LISTED — WE MAY STORE THEM UNDER THE
STRATEGIC TOPICS AND SAFE HERE ARE THE IDEAS THAT WE ARE COMING
UP WITH. YOU WILL GET A HEAD START IF YOU
ARE PARTICIPATING HERE AT THE FORUM.
YOU WILL HAVE A HEAD START IF YOU PARTICIPATED IN MARK’S
SURVEY IN THIS GROUP. YOU MAY SEE YOUR PROJECT OR KEY
AREA SHOW UP. THAT IS HOW WE ARE ROLLING THIS
FORWARD. I WILL GIVE IT AWAY, MARK GAVE
US A COPY OF THE DRAFT SO WE DO NOT HAVE THE FINAL, VERY PRETTY
TRB VERSION, WE HAVE HIS UGLY VERSION.
IT GAVE US THE DETAILS AND WE ACTED ON IT AND EVALUATED THE
2017 PROJECTS AGAINST IT. WE DO OUR OUT YEAR PLANNING
USING IT. BE NICE TO MARK AND MAYBE HE
WILL SHOW YOU HIS DRAFT INFORMAL COPY. THAT IS WHERE WE SEE THIS
PROJECT MOVING FORWARD.>>A QUESTION?>>IT IS BARBARA. YOU HAVE A SLIGHT WITH RESEARCH
PRIORITIZATION AND ITEMS THAT WERE WEIGHTED.
THE FIRST ITEM SAID RESEARCH PRIORITY, CAN YOU ELABORATE ON
HOW THAT ITEM IS EVALUATED OR THAT CRITERIA WAS ESTABLISHED?>>THAT WAS SOMEWHAT SUBJECTIVE,
THE PROJECT TEAM, LOOKING AT THE
WHOLE OF THE INFORMATION WE GOT FROM THE DIFFERENT PARTICIPANTS
, LOOKING AT HOW MANY PEOPLE TALKED ABOUT CERTAIN THINGS OR OUR PERCEPTION FROM BEING IN THE
BUSINESS OF UNDERSTANDING. THE WHOLE PROJECT TEAM RANKED EACH PROJECT WITH A SCORE FOR
EACH OF THOSE ELEMENTS OURSELVES.
THE PANEL THAT IS REVIEWING THE PROJECT WILL COMMENT ON WHETHER
THEY THINK THE WEIGHTINGS ARE REASONABLE.
ANYBODY WHO GETS THE REPORT CAN TAKE THE INFORMATION AND RE-RANK
THEMSELVES TO COME UP WITH A DIFFERENT RANKING.
IT IS OUR PERCEPTION OF THE PRIORITY.>>YOU MENTIONED YOU RANKED THEM BY DIFFERENT APPROACHES,
BUT THE LAST ONE WAS BENEFIT-COST, THE
COST IS OBVIOUS, PROJECT BUDGET.>>WE USE THE OTHER SEVEN AREAS IN THE PRIORITIZATION FRAMEWORK
AND THE SCORE FOR THAT WAS THE BENEFIT.>>THANK YOU.>>THIS IS A QUESTION DIRECTED
TO RICK. THIS IS TROY WITH SAFETY
MANAGEMENT SERVICES. YOU WERE MENTIONING ABOUT THE
FEEDBACK MECHANISMS THAT WERE ON
THE WEBSITE SO THAT PEOPLE COULD SEE WHAT INITIATIVES THERE ARE.
AND WHAT RESPONSE THERE HAS BEEN. ON THE WEBSITE, I SEE THE
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT BRANCH FOR PHMSA AND THE R&D INITIATIVES, REPORTS, WHITE
PAPER SOLICITATIONS, MEETINGS AND EVENTS, AND I ALSO FIND
PRESENTATIONS THAT HAVE BEEN GIVEN BY VARIOUS INDIVIDUALS
RECORDING THEIR PRESENTATIONS. I AM FINDING IT DIFFICULT TO
FIND WHERE THEY DIFFERENT IDEAS AND WHAT THE RESPONSE HAS BEEN
TO THOSE DIFFERENT IDEAS. WILL THERE BE SOME TYPE OF A
NAVIGATION TO THE WEBSITE PORTION SO THAT WE CAN GET ON
THE SAME PAGE AS TO THE FEEDBACK MECHANISMS?>>YES, I THINK WHAT WE ARE LOOKING AT AND THANK YOU FOR
BRINGING THIS UP. AS WE GO FORWARD AND FINISH THE 27 BA
A AND THE LIST OF PROJECTS, WE WILL POST FEEDBACK
, THESE ARE THE PROPOSALS WE GOT, AND GIVE
YOU ALL OF THAT. WITH THE 80 OR 90 PROJECTS, WE WILL NOT GET INTO DETAIL TOO
MUCH BUT WE WILL GIVE YOU A ROADMAP OF WHAT WE DID THERE.
WE WILL MAP OUT , THIS IS MORE OF
A PLAN AS WE GO FORWARD. YOU DO SEE — I AM ALMOST
HESITANT TO SAY, WE OUTSIDE IS HE LOOKING AT BECAUSE WE HAVE
TWO OR THREE RUNNING CONCURRENTLY.
THE FIRST ONE WE WANT TO DO IS GET DOWN TO ONE. YOU ARE CORRECT IN SAYING, OUR
WEBSITE IS LOOKING BACKWARD. IT IS SAYING, HERE ARE THE
PRODUCTS — PROJECTS WE HAVE DONE, THE FEEDBACK I TOOK FROM
LAST TIME, CYNTHIA HELTON SAID WE WERE WITH INE AND SAID JUST TELL ME THINK TO HAVE ALREADY
FINISHED BECAUSE I CANNOT DO ANYTHING WITH THAT.
I WANT TO BE INVOLVED. WE ARE TAKING THAT COMMENT AND
TRY TO DO THAT BETTER IN THIS FORUM AND WEBSITE COMMENT YOU
ARE MAKING, GIVE ME STUFF I CAN ASK ON AND COMMENT ON, RATHER
THAN A RESEARCH LIBRARY OF OLD PROJECTS. WE ARE WORKING IN THAT
DIRECTION. WHEN EVA STANDS UP, THE MAN WEBSITE CHANGES BECAUSE SHE IS
MORE SMARTER ON WEBSITE CHANGES THAN I AM AND SHE KNOWS PEOPLE
WHO CAN UPDATE THAT APPEARED — THAT.
SHE IS FAR AND AWAY BETTER THAN I AM.
TELL HER EVERYTHING YOU WANT ON THE WEBSITE AND SHE WILL TAKE
ACTION. SORRY, EVA.>>THANK YOU. [APPLAUSE]>>THANK YOU, MARK. WE WILL TAKE
A BREAK UNTIL 10:15 AND GET NEW PEOPLE APPEAR.
YOU ARE LUCKY, WE WILL GET A BETTER LOOKING GUY UP. .
GOOD NEWS FOR YOU. COME BACK AND WE WILL TRY TO
COME BACK ON TIME AT 10:15 AND BE RESPONSIVE TO PEOPLE
PARTICIPATING ONLINE. THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME AND FOR
THE PEOPLE ONLINE. IF YOU HAVE COMMENTS OR INPUT, THE MESSAGES GET TO ME.>>WE WILL START THE BACK THE PROGRAM.
IF YOU WILL MAKE YOUR WAY BACK, WE APPRECIATE IT.>>THANK YOU EVERYBODY FOR
COMING BACK. WE WILL START THE SECOND PART OF THE SESSION.
I AM FIRST UP ON THE DOCKET. I WILL TALK ABOUT OUR STRATEGIC
PLANNING PROCESS AND FIELD WHATEVER QUESTIONS AND CONCERNS
YOU MAY HAVE. SEVERAL PEOPLE HAVE ALLUDED TO
IT, OUR PARENT STRATEGIC DOCUMENT HAS TO BE REVISED.
AS A RESULT, OUR STRATEGIC DOCUMENT SHOULD MATCH THAT. OURS IS IN A WAITING PATTERN
UNTIL THAT IS BLESSED AND EXECUTED.
I WILL GO TO SLIDES IN THE INTEREST OF TIME. HOPEFULLY. ALL RIGHT, HERE WE GO.
MY NAME IS VEDA BHARATH AND I’M A PHYSICAL SCIENTISTS.
OF THE ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND RESEARCH DIVISION.
I WILL GIVE YOU A BRIEF OUTLINE , PARTICULARLY FOCUSED ON OUR
STRATEGIC PLANNING UPDATE PROCESS.
HOW WE WENT ABOUT IT AND THE PROGRESS WE ARE MAKING.
WHERE WE ARE RIGHT NOW. I CANNOT GET INTO THE
NITTY-GRITTY OF WHAT WE HAVE DONE.
I CAN PRESENT YOU WITH GENERAL STRATEGIC OUTLINE AND PEOPLE WHO
DO — GOING INTO IT, OUR STRATEGIC OUTLINE IS BROKEN INTO
STRATEGIC BLOCKS. WE WILL HAVE THE MISSION,
STRATEGIC PROGRAM AREAS, AND THE
MISSION AND VISION SHOULD TRACK HEAVILY WITH THE AGENCY MISSION
AND VISION. WHICH IS ROUGHLY RIGHT NOW TO PROTECT PEOPLE AND THE
ENVIRONMENT. AND TO ADVANCE SAY TRANSPORTATION OF ENERGY
PRODUCTS AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS.
OUR VISION RIGHT NOW IS SOMETHING APPROXIMATELY ALONG
THE LINES OF THE MOST INNOVATIVE HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
TRANSPORTATION AGENCY, ORGANIZATION IN THE WORLD. LOFTY BUT ATTAINABLE.
WHEN THE TALK IS OF INNOVATION, YOU SHOULD START WITH RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT.
OTHERWISE YOUR THREAT IS EMPTY. OUR INCENTIVE IS TO ALWAYS
SUPPORT THAT AND CONTRIBUTE TO THE OVERALL MISSION IN TERMS OF
THAT. RICK TOUCHED ON THE STRATEGIC
PROGRAM AREAS. WE ARE REVISING THAT AND I WILL TOUCH ON THAT LATER.
THIS IS NOT A COMPLETE REWRITE, THIS IS A REVISION OF OUR
STRATEGIC DOCUMENTS. MOVING FORWARD FOR THE NEW
CYCLE. THE THREE KEY AREAS ARE THE
BUILDING BLOCKS. PUBLIC FACE AND DOCUMENTS, THAT
IS NO SURPRISE. BE ABLE TO ACCESS ALL OF THE
INFORMATION ON OUR WEBSITE. COMMENTARY, A WORK IN PROGRESS.
THE OTHER PARTS THAT SUPPORT THAT, BUILDING BLOCK PYRAMID
STRATEGIC OUTLINE, 10 TO BE ALONG THE LINE OF PROGRAM
OBJECTIVES, KEY PERFORMANCE, MEASURES, PERFORMANCE
INTERNALLY, AND SERVE TO MAP OUT
OUR METRICS FOR WHAT WE NEED TO ASSESS OURSELVES.
THIS WILL BE A PROCESS. RICK MENTIONED EARLIER WHERE
THIS WILL TIE INTO HOW WE LOOK AT OUR MATURITY MODELS AND
PERFORMANCE, ETC. THESE THINGS HAVE TO BE
INTERNALLY TO ASSESS HOW WE MAKE PROGRESS TO REACH OUR GOALS AND
MISSION. I WANT TO GIVE YOU UPDATES ON THE R&D PROGRAM AND THE PROGRESS
WE MADE SINCE THE FIRST R&D STRATEGIC PLAN.
THIS WAS PART OF THE STRATEGIC DOCUMENT THAT IS CURRENTLY OUT.
WE HAVE MADE PROGRESS. WE HAD A CONTRACTER WHO LEFT US AND IS NOW A FEDERAL EMPLOYEE.
SHE SET UP THE BEGINNINGS OF THE MIS POINT-BASED SYSTEM.
THE GOOD THING IS WE TAILORED THE MECHANICS OF THE SYSTEM TO
OUR NEEDS. OUTSIDE OF THAT, WE HAD SYSTEMS LARGELY USELESS OUR WE COULD NOT
— WE NEEDED AND THEY DID NOT HAVE. THAT IS USEFUL AND WE CAN ACCESS
INFORMATION WHENEVER — THE BEGINNINGS OF A ROBUST MIS.
SOMETHING WE DID NOT HAVE INITIALLY.
WE ARE MAKING PROGRESS. FURTHERMORE, WE HAVE ALWAYS BEEN
IN THE BUSINESS OF HAVING STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES
DOCUMENTED AND CITED A FORMAL FASHION. WE HAVE DONE A GOOD JOB OF
REPORTING SOME THINGS AND HAVING SOMETHING IN PLACE.
THIS FORUM COULD NOT BE IN PLACE AND CONSISTENT WITHOUT SOME TYPE
OF SOP. WE HAVE BEEN ESTABLISHING THOSE
IN OTHER FRAMEWORKS AND THAT RECENTLY HAD A CONTRACT TO HELP
THE DIVISION AT LARGE, THE ENGINEERING DIVISION, WITH THEIR
SOP OUTLINES AND WE INTERFACE WITH THEM A LITTLE BIT.
THAT IS FROM A POINT OF NOTHING. RICK, IN HIS ORGANIZATION
READINESS, WE WERE AT .0, WE ARE MUCH MORE ADVANCED. WE HAVE A LOT OF THESE PROGRAM
EVALUATION DEFINED IN HOW — WHERE WE FIT INTO THE
CONTRIBUTION OF THE OVERALL MISSION.
MORE VALUE IS THE ADDITIONAL STATS.
I HAVE BEEN HERE JUST SHY OF THREE YEARS.
DIFFICULT FOR RICK BY HIMSELF. DIFFICULT WHEN IT WAS JUST ME
AND RICK. THERE ARE LUCKY TO HAVE EVA
RODEZNO, WHO BASICALLY DID THIS FORUM BY HERSELF.
I CANNOT STRESS THAT ENOUGH. THREE PEOPLE WHO STILL HAVE WORK
TO DO. WE ARE MOVING FORWARD.
THE OBLIGATION OF FUNDS. R&D, EVA WILL TOUCH ON THIS, WE WANT THE MONEY AS EARLY AS
POSSIBLE WHICH WILL HELP US ACCOMPLISH THE PROGRAM GOALS AND
STRATEGIC MISSION. THE FASTER WE CAN OBLIGATE THE
MONEY AND A SECURE PROJECTS, THE BETTER WE ARE.
WE USE TOOLS LIKE THE RECENTLY CONCLUDED SPOT AGENCY
ANNOUNCEMENT. WE HAVE OTHER THINGS IN PLACE.
WE CANNOT OPERATE IN A VACUUM. WE DO COLLABORATE HEAVILY WITHIN THE DEPARTMENT OF
TRANSPORTATION, OTHER AGENCIES, THS, DOD.
AND THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY JUST TO NAME A FEW.
THAT IS HELPING US GET TO OUR GOALS AND GET TO PROGRAM AREAS ALONG THE STRATEGIC GOALS AND LAST BUT MOST IMPORTANT IS, WE ARE STEWARDS OF PUBLIC MONEY.
WE ARE WELL AWARE OF THAT. WE ARE RESPONSIBLE. WE ARE VERY WELL AWARE.
WE WANT TO MAKE GOOD DECISIONS. WE WANT TO INVOLVE ALL
STAKEHOLDERS IN THAT DECISION AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE.
THAT IS WHY WE HAVE THINGS LIKE THIS.
GIVING US FEEDBACK THROUGH OUR WEBSITE AND EMAILS, WE MAKE THE
COMMUNICATION LINES OPEN BUT DOUBT — BECAUSE WITHOUT
FEEDBACK FROM THE COMMUNITY. DID TOUCH ON SOME OF THE
STRATEGIC PROGRAMS WE HAVE, A HIGHLIGHT OF THE OPTIMIZATION WE
ARE DOING. PEOPLE LOOK AT OUR RECENT BAA, BROAD TOPIC AREAS, SUBTOPICS.
THEY TEND TO BE PACKAGE INTEGRITY, RISK MITIGATION COME
AND MANAGEMENT, AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES.
HUMAN FACTORS ARE IMPORTANT. TO HAZMAT SAFETY.
BY ITSELF, IT PROBABLY IS NOT STRONG ENOUGH.
WHAT WE WILL DO TO SERVE THE EFFORTS I MENTIONED, WE WILL INCORPORATE THAT INTO TECHNICAL
ANALYSIS. WHEN THE STRATEGIC DOCUMENTS COME OUT, WE WILL SPELL IT OUT
SPECIFICALLY. HOW IT WILL SUPPORT THE MISSION.
TO HAVE IT AS A CATEGORY ITSELF IS A WASTE AND WE WANT TO GET
MORE STREAMLINED GOING FORWARD. THIS IS WHAT I WANT TO TALK TO
YOU ABOUT, IN THE ABSENCE OF A CONCRETE DOCUMENT.
WE DID ANALYSIS OF STRENGTH AND WEAKNESSES AND OPPORTUNITIES AND
THREATS. WE MADE IT HEAVY TO LEADERSHIP,
A KEY TO SUCCESS, I USE THE STRATEGIC PLAN.
WE GOT MOST STRONGLY FEEDBACK AND WE NEED TO REACH OTHER
STAKEHOLDERS AND PEER-REVIEWED THIS.
GET INFORMATION BACK AT SEE HOW FOLKS TALK ABOUT THIS.
THESE ARE THE HIGHLIGHTS AND I WILL TALK ABOUT FURTHER
HIGHLIGHTS. AS SKIP MENTIONED, WE HAVE A
VERY DEEP BENCH. THE GROUP OF FOLKS, THE CHEMISTS
AND ENGINEERS , WE TRY TO UTILIZE
THEM AND THEIR EXPERTISE TO MAKE THIS PROGRAM, SO THAT IS ONE
DEFINITE STRENGTH WE HAVE. WE HAVE FOLKS WITH A LOT OF
INSTITUTIONAL KNOWLEDGE, AS WELL AS NEW FOLKS BRINGING IN NEW
IDEAS. THE LEVEL OF TALENT AND TECHNICAL EXPERTISE IS THERE.
I WOULD FURTHER ARGUE IT IS PRE-AND USUAL PRETTY UNUSUAL FOR
A GOVERNMENT AGENCY — PRETTY UNUSUAL FOR A GOVERNMENT AGENCY
TO HAVE THIS ALL IN ONE PLACE. THAT IS SOMETHING WE DRAW UPON. WE HAVE GOOD RELATIONSHIPS WITH
STAKEHOLDERS, INTERMODAL PARTNERS, AND EVERYONE WE
PARTNER WITH. WE THINK WE ARE DOING PRETTY
WELL. WE DON’T WANT TO JUST BE CONTENT. FINALLY, THIS IS ONE OF THE
TOOLS WE ARE GOING TO USE TO PROMOTE THE PROGRAM.
IT IS ONE OF THE TOOLS IN THE TOOLBOX FOR A REALLY SUCCESSFUL
R&D PROGRAM. WE GET BACK REALLY HIGH-QUALITY
INNOVATIVE PROPOSALS AND IDEAS. FOLKS IN GOVERNMENT R&D, THIS IS
A PRETTY TYPICAL TOOL IN OUR GOVERNMENT R&D TOOLBOX.
THIS IS HOW WE ARE GOING TO USE THIS TOOL FOR OUTREACH, TO BRING
FOLKS INTO TALK ABOUT IDEAS, AND
AT THE SAME TIME EQUIP OUR CURRENT WORKFORCE WITH IDEAS AT
THEIR FINGERTIPS. THE OPPORTUNITIES TO DO BETTER
ARE JUST ALWAYS THERE. WE DON’T WANT TO BE CONTENT WITH
THE FAIR JOB WE ARE DOING RIGHT NOW.
WE ALWAYS WANT TO DO BETTER AND ACHIEVE A VERY HIGH SCORE FOR A
HIGH FUNCTIONING ORGANIZATION, AS RICK SHOWED IN HIS MATURITY
MODEL, IS A VERY INTUITIVE PROCESS YOU HAVE TO KEEP GOING
TOWARDS. I RECOMMEND YOU READ IT.
THIS IS A THING YOU CAN’T JUST GET COMFORTABLE AND COMPLACENT.
WE ARE DESPERATELY TRYING TO LIVE UP TO THAT.
AS WE PUT OUR — WE ARE REALLY EXCITED TO HAVE EVERYTHING FROM
NEW MATERIALS ALL THE WAY ACROSS
TO EXPLOSIVES AND LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES WITH OUR PARTNERS IN NAVY.
WE ARE VERY EXCITED TO HAVE SKIPPED AS A — HAVE SKIP AS
A GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATOR. HE HAS DEFINITELY LIVED UP TO
HIS WORD. HE’S BEEN VERY ENGAGED AND
SUPPORTIVE OF OUR R&D EFFORTS. WE ARE VERY EXCITED ABOUT THAT.
WE DO HAVE INCREASED EXECUTIVE ENGAGEMENT, AND THAT CAN ONLY
HELP US. SOME WITNESSES THAT WE ARE ALREADY ADDRESSING IS WE HAVE A
LOW CONTRACT OF THE REPRESENTATIVE RATIO.
THESE ARE THE FOLKS THAT MAINTAIN PROJECT AND INTERFACE
WITH CONTRACTORS. RIGHT NOW THERE’S THREE OF US,
AND THAT IS HEAVY LIFTING FOR THE PROJECTS WE HAVE. WE ARE GOING TO GET HELP WITH
THAT, BUT IT IS DEFINITELY A WEAKNESS AS WE STAND RIGHT NOW. INSUFFICIENT RESOURCES IN TERMS
OF MANPOWER AND WOMAN POWER. WE HAVE A HEAVY LIFT DID TODAY. WHEN IT COMES TO GETTING THE
GOOD WORD OF HAZMAT AND R&D OUT THERE, IT’S ALL SORT BECAUSE WE
DON’T HAVE THE ABILITY TO DO THAT. WE HAVE A PLAN FOR THAT MOVING
FORWARD. ONE KEY THING WE ARE MISSING
THAT WE TABLED FOR A WHILE IS TO
HAVE AN ADVISORY BOARD. THIS IS A PRETTY COMMON FEATURE
OF GOVERNMENT R&D. THE ADVISORY BOARD HAS TO BE A
PRETTY DIVERSE BOARD. FOLKS ALONG THE RESEARCH
SPECTRUM. THAT WOULD REALLY HELP US KEEP HONEST IN SPENDING TAXPAYER
MONEY. WE HAVE TO REALLY WORK WITH THE OFFICE OF CONTRACTS, WHICH WE
HAVE A VERY GOOD RELATIONSHIP WITH
, AND WORK ON OPTIMIZING OUR CONTRACT PROCESS TO BE ABLE TO EXECUTE R&D CONTRACTS AS FAST AS
POSSIBLE. THERE ARE CERTAIN THINGS WE
CAN’T AVOID, LIKE UNCERTAIN BUDGETS, BUT WE SHOULDN’T BE
SURPRISED WHEN THINGS LIKE THIS HAPPEN.
WHEN YOU DO HAVE SOME PLANS IN PLACE FOR THINGS LIKE THIS
OCCURRING. IT IS NO SURPRISE THAT IN HARD FINANCIAL TIMES, ONE OF THE
FIRST THINGS TO GET TRIMMING HIS R&D. WE HAVE TO WORK ON THAT. WE NEED MORE PROGRAM MANAGEMENT RESOURCES, IDENTIFY WHAT THOSE
ARE AND HOW THEY BENEFIT US COME AND EXECUTE THOSE.
THIS IS JUST A SNAPSHOT OF THE SWOT ANALYSIS WE DID. I ENCOURAGE YOU HEAVILY TO
PLEASE GIVE US MUCH FEEDBACK AS POSSIBLE ON THIS.
IF YOU THINK WE COMPLETELY MISSED THE MARK, IF IT IS
SOMETHING YOU THINK IS GOOD, BAD, INDIFFERENT.
AS MUCH FEEDBACK AS POSSIBLE. WE CAN’T ACHIEVE SUCCESS WITHOUT
INTERFACING WITH YOU, FOLKS. WE’RE GOING TO KEEP ENGAGING
WITH OUR LEADERSHIP BECAUSE WE WANT TO HAVE AN ACTIONABLE,
USABLE PRODUCT AT THE END. WE DON’T JUST WHEN A DOCUMENT TO
SIT ON THE SHELF OR OUR WEBSITE. WE WANT ACTIONABLE CONCLUSIONS
AND RESULTS ON IT. PHASE ONE, WE CONCLUDE THE SWOT ANALYSIS.
PHASE TO COME UP WANT TO — PHASE TWO, WHAT TO INFORM YOU GUYS. THE FINAL PHASE, WE ARE GOING TO
COME BACK AND COMPILE EVERYTHING , INTERFACE WITH LEADERSHIP, AND
HOPEFULLY BY THEN HAVE A ROBUST DOCUMENT TO SUPPORT US AS WELL. I REALLY WANT TO OPEN FOR
QUESTIONS. IF YOU HAVE PARTICULARLY
NEGATIVE AND CRITICAL COMMENTS, SEND THEM TO RICK.
THIS IS A LINK TO OUR WEBSITE. WITH THAT, I WILL OPEN THE
SUPPER QUESTIONS PLEASE. THAT’S OPEN THIS UP FOR — OPEN
THIS UP FOR QUESTIONS PLEASE.>>DO YOU HAVE ANY IDEAS WHEN YOU MIGHT CONSIDER THAT PANEL OR
ADVISORY BOARD, WHEN YOU MIGHT BE ADDRESSING THAT?
VEDA: THIS IS SOMETHING THAT, ONCE WE SETTLED, WE WILL GET AT A POINT WHERE WE CAN LOOK AT
THAT. THERE WERE SOME AREAS OF BEGINNINGS ON THAT ON
INTERFACING WITH FOLKS IN H CRP . THE COOPERATIVE RESEARCH
PROGRAM. THIS IS SOMETHING WE DID WITH
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES COME IN PARTICULAR THE RESEARCH BOARD.
INITIALLY THERE WERE TALKS ON LETTING THEM ASSIST IN THIS
ADVISORY BOARD. INTERNATIONAL ACADEMIES, THEY
HAVE NO SKIN IN THE GAME AT ALL, WHICH MAKES THEM A GREAT
CANDIDATE FOR HELPING US WITH SOMETHING LIKE THAT.
WE ARE STARTING THE PROCESS, LIKELY HAVING SOMETHING OF
SUBSTANCE TO REPORT TOWARDS THE END OF THE CALENDAR YEAR.>>ALL RIGHT.
I WANT TO MAKE SOME ANNOUNCEMENTS THAT I NEGLECTED
TO MAKE BEFORE I CAME HERE. I WANT TO THANK NTSB
FOR OFFERING US THIS SPACE AND ALLOWING US TO USE THIS SPACE
FOR THIS MEETING. AS RICK SAID, WE HAVE CRAMPED
HEADQUARTERS IN DOT, SO THIS IS A LOT MORE AIRY.
WE REALLY WANT TO THANK NTSBFOR THAT. — WE REALLY WANT TO THANK NTSB
FOR THAT. THIS WILL BE RECORDED.
WE ARE GOING TO FACE UP — GOING
TO DICE UP OUR LIVE FEED INTO BITE-SIZE PORTIONS SO PEOPLE CAN
LEARN FROM THE PRESENTATIONS, ETC. JUST KEEP — PRESENTATIONS, ETC.
JUST KEEP THAT IN MIND THAT THESE WILL BE MADE PUBLIC. WITH THAT, I WANT TO GET THE
BALL ROLLING SO WE CAN GET AN EARLY LUNCH. YOU’RE WELCOME.>>NEXT UP, I AM VERY EXCITED TO
HAVE EVA RODEZNO TO TALK ABOUT
THE BROAD AGENCY ANNOUNCEMENT, AND THE PROCESS AND TRIALS WE’VE
HAD. SHE WAS A DEFENSE CONTRACTOR. SHE HAS A BACKGROUND IN CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING AND A GRADUATE DEGREE FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF
MARYLAND SINCE — MARYLAND. SINCE SHE STARTED HERE SEVEN
MONTHS AGO, SHE’S HIT THE GROUND
RUNNING AND WE ARE VERY LUCKY TO HAVE HER.
SHE’S BEEN AN ASSET TO OUR PROGRAM.
WITH THAT, I WILL TURN IT OVER TO EVA TO TALK MORE ABOUT THE
WORK WE HAVE BEEN DOING ON THAT. EVA: GOOD MORNING. MY NAME IS EVA RODEZNO. THANK YOU ALL FOR ATTENDING.
AS RICK MENTIONED EARLIER, THIS YEAR ONE TOOL USED TO GROW OUR
R&D PROGRAM WAS THE BROAD AGENCY
ANNOUNCEMENT, THE BAA. OBIE GONE OVER THE PROCESS AND
RESULTS. — I WILL BE GOING OVER THE
PROCESS AND RESULTS. IF WE COULD SHOW THE SLIDES,
THAT WOULD BE GREAT. OK. THANK YOU. FIRST OFF, WHAT IS A BROAD
AGENCY ANNOUNCEMENT? YOU WILL SEE HERE THE BASIC
PROCESS BEHIND IT, WHICH IS THE GENERAL PROCESS WE USED.
IT IS VERY SIMILAR TO A REQUEST PROPOSAL, EXCEPT IT IS MORE
BROAD TO ENCOURAGE INNOVATION AND COMPETITION. IT IS USED ACROSS GOVERNMENT
BECAUSE IT PROVIDES THE BEST VALUE FOR TAXPAYER MONEY SINCE
IT IS MORE COMPETITIVE AND OFFERS A WIDER RANGE OF IDEAS.
WE USED THE NASA MODEL AND TAILORED IT TO OUR NEEDS.
I WILL EXPLAIN HOW WE DID THAT ON OUR — ON OUR NEXT SLIDE.
THE FIRST STEP IN CRAFTING A BAA IS TO DECIDE WHAT THE PRIORITY
AREAS SHOULD BE. WE DREW FROM OUR STRATEGIC PLAN,
WHICH YOU WILL SEE IN THE COLORED FONT HERE IS THE BROAD
HEADING FROM OUR STRATEGIC LAND THAT STRATEGIC PLAN — STRATEGIC
PLAN. WE JUST ON DEMAND FROM CONGRESS,
LEADERSHIP INPUT ON INPUT FROM MOTO PARTNERS AND OTHER FEDERAL
AGENCIES COME AND FROM FORUMS NOT UNLIKE THE ONE WE ARE IN
NOW. WE CAME UP WITH HIS PRIORITIES,
WROTE THE BAA , GOT APPROVAL FROM
LEADERSHIP, AND THEN ADVERTISED IT. BEFORE 2017, R&D FUNDING WAS
SMALLER AND WE CONTRACTED PROJECT ON A PROJECT BY PROJECT
BASIS. WE HAVE HAD AN INCREASE IN R&D
FUNDING, WHICH MEANS THAT HAD TO BECOME A MORE FORMAL PROCESS.
THE BAA ALLOWS TO DO THAT IN A MORE FORMAL MANNER. WE ADVERTISED IT THROUGH SEVERAL
OUTLETS. VISITED UNIVERSITIES, SENT OUT
EMAILS TO PRB AND OUR MOSUL PARTNERS — MODAL PARTNERS I SHOULD PROBABLY DO A RECAP OF
THE PROCESS. FIRST WE ASKED FOR A THREE PAGE
PAPER TO PROVE TO US THEY KNEW WHAT THEY WERE TALKING ABOUT AND
COULD UNDERTAKE THE PROJECT. FROM THERE WE NARROWED THE FIELD
DOWN. WITH THE REMAINING FIELD, WE
ASKED FOR AN 11 PAGE PROPOSAL, AND THAT HAD TO GIVE US A MORE
DETAILED I OUTLINE EXACT — DETAILED OUTLINE EXPLAINING
EXACTLY WHAT THEY WOULD DO. IT WAS A MATTER OF REVIEWING THOSE WITH THE HELP OF OUR
ENGINEERING AND SCIENCES BRANCH FOR TECHNICAL INPUT, AND THEN
CUTTING THE FIELD DOWN AGAIN AND PRIORITIZING BASED ON OUR TOTAL
FUNDING. AFTER ALL THAT, WE THEN TOOK THE
PROPOSALS TO LEADERSHIP FOR THEIR APPROVAL, AND IN THE PROCESS OF TAKING THEM TO
CONTRACTORS TO BE AWARDED. THIS IS JUST A SNAPSHOT OF THE WORK. IT
WAS A HEAVY LIFT, AND THIS IS WHAT THE PROCESS GOT US.
WE ENDED UP CHOOSING AROUND 15 PROPOSALS FOR A TOTAL OF $7
MILLION FROM OVER 80 PROPOSALS. BEFORE I GET INTO GOALS, I WILL
TALK ABOUT HOW BAA FITS IN WITH DOT GOALS OF PROMOTING SAFETY,
IMPROVING ABILITY TO — IMPROVING MOBILITY, IMPROVING
INFRASTRUCTURE. THIS CHART IS TO GIVE YOU AN
IDEA OF HOW THE PROJECTS CONTRIBUTE TOWARDS NTSB GOALS.
— WITH PHSMA GOALS. ALL FIVE OF THESE ARE PHSMA
GOALS. THE ONES WE MOSTLY WORK TOWARDS
ARE THE FIRST TWO. I’VE BEEN TALKING ABOUT THE
PROCESS AND HOW WE EXECUTED IT. I WILL GO INTO MORE OF THE
NUMBERS AND HOW THESE ROGER — HOW THIS PROJECT BROKE DOWN.
THIS IS WITHIN HAZMAT R&D, A BREAKDOWN CHART OF OUR GOALS.
THIS IS THE BREAKDOWN BETWEEN THE TWO KNOWLEDGE AREAS/RESEARCH
TYPES, AND A PROPOSAL AMONG THOSE.
YOU CAN SEE THERE’S A LOT OF PACKAGING MATERIAL PROJECTS
THAT HAVE RAMPED UP IN THE PAST YEARS, MOVING AWAY FROM SOLID
METAL PACKAGING. YOU ALSO SEE A LOT OF PROJECTS
ON THE E R G DIGITAL MOVE TOWARDS SMART CITIES.
THIS WAS THE MOST IMPACTFUL TOWARDS SAFETY GOALS.
AFTER DOING THIS BAA, I’VE LEARNED A LOT, MAINLY THAT IT IS
A LOT OF WORK FOR TWO PEOPLE TO DO, SO IT WAS QUITE A LEARNING
EXPERIENCE. TO GUT THE FIELD DOWN
SIGNIFICANTLY AND MAKE IT EASIER TO APPLY TO WORK WITH OUR
ACQUISITIONS DEPARTMENT, THROUGH ALL OUR PROPOSALS — [INDISCERNIBLE]
THERE ARE TIMES WE THOUGHT IT WAS OBVIOUS ON WHAT WE WERE
ASKING TO BE DONE ON A CERTAIN TOPIC AREA, AND WE WOULD GET
PROPOSALS THAT DID NOT INCLUDE THE METAL.
— BEEN AT ALL — INCLUDE THEM AT ALL.
WE NEEDED TO KEEP THE REQUESTS BROAD.
WE ALSO THINK IT WOULD BE A GOOD IDEA TO SIGN — TO ASSIGN A
PRIORITY RANKING TO EACH TOPIC AREA SO THAT SOME AREAS DON’T
GET LEFT COMPLETELY UNADDRESSED. IN SUMMARY, WE SELECTED ABOUT 15
PROPOSALS THAT COST ABOUT $7 MILLION. AFTER BEING BEHIND SCHEDULE ON
THE WINNING CONTRACTS, IT IS TOO
EARLY TO COME UP WITH A DATE FOR OUR NEXT ROUND. WE ALREADY DO KNOW THAT WE ARE
GOING TO CONDUCTED DIFFERENTLY. I GREATLY SUGGEST THAT YOU LOST
AROUND FOR DAY TWO AS THE OUTCOMES WILL HELP US
SIGNIFICANTLY CRAFT THE NEXT BAA . SO, ON THE LIST OF TOPICS FOR
FUTURE R&D, WITHOUT YOUR EFFORTS — HERE IS MINE AND RICK’S CONTACT INFORMATION.
THE WOULD LOVE TO HEAR IDEAS ON THE PROGRAM, AND THANK YOU FOR
LISTENING. I WILL TAKE QUESTIONS NOW.
[APPLAUSE]>>WE ARE NOT COMMITTED TO BAA
AS OUR NEXT ACQUISITION STRATEGY
BECAUSE WE DO NOT KNOW WHAT OUR OPTIONS ARE.
IT IS A NEXT ACQUISITION ACTION.>>LISA WITH THE TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY CENTER INCORPORATED.
WORTHY BAA — WERE THE BAA’S YOU OFFERED ONLY OPEN TO
UNIVERSITIES AND NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, OR WERE ALL
WELCOMED? EVA: WE ALLOWED CORPORATIONS AND
BUSINESSES AS WELL.>>THE U.S. DEBATE THEY WILL BE DEATH DO YOU ANTICIPATE THEY
WILL BE ALLOWED IN THE NEXT ROUND AS WELL — THE UN’S BABY
WILL BE ALLOWED — DO YOU ANTICIPATE THEY WILL BE ALLOWED IN THE NEXT ROUND AS WELL?>>YES.>>THANK YOU.>>I HAVE A QUESTION IN RELATION
TO THE CHARGED STORAGE DEVICES. CAN YOU EXPAND ON WHAT FITS INTO
THAT UMBRELLA? EVA: VEDA COULD ANSWER BETTER. VEDA: I CAN DO THAT. WE WENT TO KEEP IT IN THE BROAD
UMBRELLA OF CHARGE TO STORAGE. LITHIUM BATTERIES, PEOPLE KNOW
THE DEAL WITH THEM. WE ARE WORKING ON A LOT OF THE
SAFETY ASPECTS OF IT RIGHT NOW. AS AN AGENCY, OF COURSE R&D IS
NOT IMMUNE TO THAT. WE WANT TO BE REALLY
FORWARD-LOOKING AND REALLY LOOK AT WHAT ARE THE NEXT
TECHNOLOGIES COMING OUT THERE. THIS IS A PRETTY
NONCONTROVERSIAL STATEMENT, TECHNOLOGY PROCEEDS AT A CERTAIN
PACE, AND CERTAIN TECHNOLOGIES, PARTICULARLY WHEN THEY HAVE A
SIGNIFICANT PUBLIC BENEFIT, CAN BENEFIT FROM CHARGED STORAGE,
WHAT HIS HIGH ENERGY DENSITY DEVICES LIKE LITHIUM-ION
BATTERIES. THEIR PROGRESSION TENDS TO BE
VERY FAST, PARTICULARLY WITH MARKET FORCES AND DEMAND.
IN THAT DEVELOPMENT, THE THING THAT GETS LEFT BEHIND A LOT OF
TIME IS SAFETY. NOT JUST PICKING ON CHARGED
STORAGE. IT IS THE KIND OF STUFF I WORKED
ON FOR QUITE A NUMBER OF YEARS. RESEARCH TENDS TO NEGLECT SAFETY IN GENERAL.
THIS IS WHERE WE COME TO FILL THAT IN.
WE CAN DO A BETTER JOB BEING ANTICIPATORY OF THE NEXT DEMANDS, PARTICULARLY THE
POTENTIAL SAFETY ISSUES WITH THOSE UPCOMING DEMANDS. AS AN R&D GROUP, WE CAN DO
BETTER AT BEING ANTICIPATORY OF THAT INSTEAD OF REACTING TO
THINGS WHEN THEY HAPPEN, LIKE UPS PLANES HAVING A PACKAGE
EXPLODE WHEN THEY ARE ON.>>A COUPLE MONTHS AGO THERE WAS A TRANSPORTATION OF DAMAGED AND
DEFECTIVE BATTERIES. IT IS UNCLEAR WHAT HAPPENED, BUT
THERE WAS AN EXPLOSION. THE SAFETY IMPLICATIONS OF THAT
WEREN’T 100% KNOWN. WE DON’T WANT TO RESPOND TO
THINGS AFTER THEY HAPPEN. IT WOULD ENABLE US TO FACILITATE
A LOT OF IDEAS AND INNOVATION ,
EVEN IF WE ARE IN LOCKSTEP WITH TECHNOLOGY.
WE WILL TAKE THAT AS A WIN BECAUSE RIGHT NOW WE ARE BEHIND.
ANY MORE QUESTIONS PLEASE? OK, THEN I WILL STAY UP HERE.
THAT IS THE PERFECT SEGUE TO THE
LITHIUM BATTERY SECTION OF OUR PROGRAM.
WE ARE REALLY EXCITED TO BE PARTNERED WITH THE DEPARTMENT OF
NAVY, IN PARTICULAR THE NAVAL RESEARCH LAB, AND WE HAVE BEEN WORKING WITH THESE FOLKS FOR A
FEW YEARS NOW, AND WE HAVE BEEN VERY HAPPY WITH THE PROGRAMS AND
THE EXPERTISE WE ARE ABLE TO RELY ON DAY-TO-DAY WITH THESE
FOLKS. THEY ARE A PLEASURE TO WORK WITH
AND THEIR KNOWLEDGE IS STELLAR. TO KICK IT OFF WE HAVE DR. COREY
LOVE FROM THE NAVAL RESEARCH LAB, TALKING ABOUT THE NAVAL
SCIENCE ASPECT OF THE DEPARTMENT
OF NAVY, AND PARTICULAR UNDERSTANDING SOME OF THE ISSUES
WITH INTERNAL FLOWS, ETC. I WILL TURN IT OVER TO COREY,
AND IF WE COULD GET THE SLIDES GOING, I’D APPRECIATE IT.
DR. LOVE: GOOD MORNING. I THINK THAT IS A GOOD LEAD-IN TO THE LITHIUM-ION BATTERY
DISCUSSION. THE TITLE IMPLIES THIS IS A VERY
NARROW FOCUS, BUT THAT IS JUST THE TITLE ON THE NAVY CONTRACT.
BUT I WILL TALK ABOUT TODAY IS A LITTLE HIGHER LEVEL
ON SOME OF OUR TECHNOLOGY ACHIEVEMENTS AND HOW WE ARE
TRYING TO PINPOINT OUR EFFORTS TO CATCH UP WITH THAT SAFETY
-TECHNOLOGY LAG THAT VEDA TALKED ABOUT. THE SAFETY
TECHNOLOGY IS SORT OF SLOW TO CATCH UP.
THAT IS AN AREA WHERE WE ARE ACTIVELY INVOLVED.
THIS PRESENTATION WILL BE A TEAM EFFORT BETWEEN MYSELF AT THE
NAVAL RESEARCH LAB, AND MY COLLEAGUE JONATHAN KO AT THE
NAVAL SURFACE WARFARE CENTER. THERE’S A LOT OF INSTITUTIONAL
KNOWLEDGE , A LOT OF HARD LESSONS
LEARNED ALONG THE WAY, SO WE SUPPORT THE NAVY IN THAT EFFORT
TO THIS DAY, AND WE ARE HAPPY TO SUPPORT OTHER CUSTOMERS
THROUGHOUT THE GOVERNMENT, SUCH AS PHSMA.
FIRST I WOULD LIKE TO HIGHLIGHT THE FORESIGHT OF PHSMA IN THE
R&D TEAM HIGHLIGHTING THIS STRATEGIC PLAN DOCUMENT FROM
2012 TO 2017. LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES WERE
HIGHLIGHTED IN THAT DOCUMENT AS A SIGNIFICANT R&D NEED.
THIS WAS A LITTLE BIT BEFORE LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES WERE
PERVASIVE IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES AND CONSUMER ELECTRONICS.
REALLY IMPORTANT VISION FROM PHSMA TO IDENTIFY THIS AS A VERY
CRITICAL AREA FOR R&D RESEARCH. SOME OF THE KEYWORDS, THE BUZZ WORDS THAT COME OUT OF THAT
DOCUMENT WILL WE TALK ABOUT LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES, SAFETY, PREVENTION, MITIGATION, AND
CONTAINMENT. WE ARE FOUNDED AROUND THOSE
THREE PILLARS OF PREVENTION, MITIGATION, AND CONTAINMENT.
AS I MENTIONED THE NAVY CONSTRUCT, JONATHAN WILL TOUCH
ON HIS WORK AT NAFC. WE ARE BOTH NAVY, BUT HAVE
UNIQUE SKILL SETS. WE ARE A LITTLE BIT MORE ON THE
BASIC SIDE, LOOKING FOR FURTHER TERM TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS. JUST A BRIEF OUTLINE, I
MENTIONED THE THREE PILLARS UPON
WHICH THIS RESEARCH EFFORT IS BUILT.
I WILL TALK A LITTLE BIT ABOUT INTERNAL SHORT-CIRCUIT
TRIGGERING MECHANISMS AND MY — AND WHY WE WANT TO DEVELOP THAT.
NEXT IS THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION COSTS SUPPORT — TRANSPORTATION’S SUPPORT THIS
YEAR, WE WERE ABLE TO MAKE A DEVICE, AND A FIRE CONTAINMENT
EXERCISE WE DID LAST YEAR. FIRST ON THE PREVENTION SIDE, DEVELOPING INTERNAL
SHORT-CIRCUIT TRIGGERS. IT DOESN’T SEEM INTUITIVE WHY
YOU WOULD WANT TO INDUCE FAILURES, BUT WHEN YOU TAKE A
FEW STEPS BACK GOING FOR THE TESTING AND EVALUATION OF THE
ION BATTERIES COMING HAVE TO GET CREDIBLE SORT OF REAL-WORLD
EVIDENCE AND DATA. THE CURRENT TESTING METHODS TO
INDUCE FAILURES ARE NOT NECESSARILY REPRESENTATIVE OF
TRUE, REAL LIFE FAILURES. THIS IS AN EFFORT TO INDUCE
ELECTROCHEMICAL INSTABILITIES ON DEMAND TO INDUCE THOSE FAILURES
IN A MORE REALISTIC CONDITION. WHAT I HAVE — I DON’T KNOW IF I
CAN SHOW YOU HERE — EXPERIMENTALLY ARE SET UP, I
WILL GUIDE YOU THROUGH WHAT WE ARE DOING HERE.
WE’RE USING A THERMAL GRADIENT ACROSS A BATTERY CELL AND WE ARE
ABLE TO INDUCE THOSE TYPES OF FAILURES.
ALSO I WILL JUST POINT OUT THAT THIS WAS A TECHNOLOGY GAP THAT
WAS IDENTIFIED IN THE INSTRUCTION 38. THREE.
HERE’S THE SCIENCE BEHIND THIS. BASICALLY WHAT WE HAVE IS A
COMMERCIAL CELL. WE HAVE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE
TERMINALS. IN A PERFECT WORLD, THE BATTERY
CYCLES PROVIDE ENERGY FOR YOUR PERSONAL ELECTRONIC DEVICE. WHAT WE’VE FOUND IS WE CAN
AFFECT THE ELECTROCHEMISTRY INSIDE THE BATTERY WITH AN
EXTERNAL GRADIENT. NOT TERRIBLY ABUSIVE.
WE ARE NOT TAKING THESE TWO VERY RAPID THERMAL RUNAWAY REACTION
TYPE TEMPERATURES. BUT ON HOW WE APPLIED THAT
GRADIENT, WHAT WE FOUND IS IT CAN DIRECTLY AFFECT THE LOCAL
ELECTROCHEMISTRY THROUGH APPLICATION OF THIS GRADIENT.
AT THE BOTTOM OF THE SLIDE I HAVE SOME DATA.
BASICALLY WHAT WE ARE SHOWING USE OF THE LEFT HAND SIDE, THE
BOTTOM LEFT IS SORT OF CHARGED. THEN WE INITIATE THIS THERMAL
GRADIENT, AND YOU SEE ON THE BOTTOM RIGHT WHERE WE’VE
IDENTIFIED THINGS LIKE DENDRITITC — DENDRITIC GROWTH. THIS IS A VERY PRODUCIBLE
PHENOMENA AND MECHANISM. THERE IS AN APPLICATION UNDER
WAY, SO THE GOVERNMENT WILL RETAIN THE PATENT RIGHTS TO THIS
METHODOLOGY. ON THE MITIGATION FRONT, AS I
MENTIONED WE HAVE BEEN DEVELOPING DIAGNOSTICS.
THIS IS AN EARLY WARNING SIGNS THAT BATTERIES MAY BE TENDING
TOWARD INSTABILITY OR A FAILURE. BASICALLY THE RESEARCH SIDE HAS
BEEN FUNDED THROUGH THE OFFICE OF — THE NAVY OFFICE OF RESEARCH.
WE CAN DEVELOP THINGS WHERE WE CAN GET INFORMATION BACK FROM
THE BATTERY AND MAKE A CONTROLLED DECISION ABOUT WHERE
WE ARE, WHAT IS THE STABILITY OF THE BATTERY.
THIS IS THE BATT MD DEVICE. WITH DOT SUPPORT, WE WERE REALLY
ABLE TO TAKE THIS FROM A FUNDAMENTAL LEVEL TO A WORKING
PROTOTYPE. JONATHAN WILL DISCUSS A LITTLE
BIT LATER PART OF HIS PROGRAM WITH SIMILAR TECHNOLOGIES , SO WE
ARE HAPPY WE WILL BE ABLE TO DELIVER OUR DEVICE TO JONATHAN
IN THE NEXT FEW MONTHS FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION.
THIS IS KIND OF A FLOWCHART TO SHOW WHERE WE HAVE BEEN.
THE LAST FEW YEARS AT THE TOP, WITH DOT’S SUPPORT WE HAVE BEEN
ABLE TO CLOSE THE LOOP AND HAVE A WORKING PROTOTYPE.
WITH COME A LONG WAY. WE’VE LEARNED A LOT THROUGHOUT
THIS PROCESS. I THINK WE HAVE A REALLY
EXCELLENT TOOL NOW TO BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY INSTABILITY AND
BATTERIES, BUT — IN BATTERIES BEFORE A FAILURE OCCURS.
IN THE CURRENT CONSTRUCT THIS IS DONE WITH A SORT OF HANDHELD
METER TYPE PROTOTYPE. THE LAST PILLAR IS CONTAINMENT. THIS HAS TO DO WITH BATTERY
FAILURES AND FIRE CONTAINMENT. IF THERE ARE TWO MAIN THRUSTS AS
PART OF THIS COMPARTMENT, IT IS THE BATTERY THAT INDUCES FIRE OR
PROTECTING BATTERIES FROM AN EXTERNAL FLAME OR FIRE SOURCE.
WE DO THIS IN THE LABORATORY. WE HAVE AN ACCELERATED RATE
CALENDAR WHICH ALLOWS THEM TO DO SINGLE TESTING.
THIS IS PURCHASED THROUGH DOD FUNDING AND IS AVAILABLE FOR DOT
RESEARCHERS. WHAT IT DOES IS GIVE US THE MOST CREDIBLE EVENT.
IF THERE IS A BATTERY FAILURE, ONE OF THE GASES THAT EVOLVE?
WHAT DOES THE PRESSURE LOOK LIKE? HOW MUCH HEAT IS INDUCED?
WAS THE ONSET TEMPERATURE? THIS IS WHAT WE CAN GET FROM
THIS VERY VALUABLE PIECE OF EQUIPMENT.
JUST TO BACK UP ON SORT OF OUR DIAGNOSTIC WHICH I JUST
DESCRIBED, THIS IS A PERFECT TOOL WHERE WE CAN TEST THE
VALIDATION OF THAT PRODUCT. WENDY — WHEN THE BATMD GIVES US INFORMATION THAT A BATTERY
MAY BE FEELING, AR — MAY BE , WE
CAN PUT IT IN THE ARC AND SEE HOW CATASTROPHIC AND MAYBE.
WE HAD A LARGE BATTERY MADE UP OF HUNDREDS OF PRIMARY CELLS
THAT HAD SOME DEFECT. THIS WAS A PERFECT TESTING
VEHICLE WHERE WE COULD LOOK AT THE EFFECT OF THE FULL SCALE FIRE ON A VERY LARGE DEFECTIVE
BATTERY. WE DID THIS AT THE NAVAL
RESEARCH LAB COME MUCH AS THE EACH DETACHMENT — NAVAL
RESEARCH LAB CHESAPEAKE EACH DETACHMENT.
IN THIS CONDITION, THE BATTERIES ARE HOUSED INSIDE THIS TUBE YOU
SEE. THEN WE HAD OUR FIRE GEL BLANKET
WRAPPED AROUND. WE INITIATE THE FAILURE WITH A
VERY AGGRESSIVE FLAME SPRAY. THIS IS DONE TO SIMULATE
WORST-CASE FAILURE OF AN EXTERNAL FLYER. WE HAVE A LOT OF
IMAGES AND HAVE COLLECTED A LOT OF MEANINGFUL
DATA THROUGHOUT THIS PROCESS. ONE OF THE KEY FINDINGS
THROUGHOUT THIS EFFORT IS NOT ONLY THE INITIATION OF THE
BATTERY COMPARTMENT, THE ENERGY SECTION, A SAFETY HAZARD, BUT IT
IS ALSO THE THINGS THAT ARE COMING OUT OF THAT BATTERY FIRE.
IT IS REALLY THE PROXIMITY OF COMBUSTIBLES AND FLAMMABLES
AROUND THE ENERGY SECTION THAT COULD BE THE MOST CATASTROPHIC.
THESE ARE JUST THE HIGH LEVEL FINDINGS FROM THAT LARGE-SCALE
FIRE TEST. THIS IS ALSO A NICE EXERCISE FOR
US TO IMPLEMENT THE DOT INSTRUCTIONS FOR OUR SELF FOR
TRANSPORTING DANGEROUS AND DEFECTIVE BATTERIES.
WE WERE ABLE TO FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTION AND FOUND IT TO BE A
VERY ACHIEVABLE, NOT CUMBERSOME,
AND ACTUALLY WHICH THE INSTRUCTION A STEP FURTHER.
WITHIN OUR SECONDARY CONTAINMENT WILL DID THE SECOND
TRANSPORTATION JUST TO ADD AN EXTRA LAYER OF SAFETY.
WE FOUND THAT INSTRUCTION TO BE VERY HELPFUL AND ENABLE US TO DO
SAY THINGS — TO DO SAY THINGS WHEN IT COMES TO TRANSPORT.
JUST TO SUMMARIZE THE NLL DEVELOPMENT, WE HAVE DEVELOPED A
THIS SHORT CIRCUIT TRIGGERING MECHANISM.
WE STILL HAVE A WAYS TO GO WITH THOSE SINCE IT — THOSE
TEMPERATURE BOUNDARIES. WE ARE REALLY CONFIDENT WITH THE
BASIC SCIENCE THAT WE GENERATED THAT WE CAN BUILD ON THAT
THROUGHOUT THE REST OF THIS FISCAL YEAR.
THE BATTERY MONITORING DEVICE, OR BATMD, IS GOING VERY WELL.
WE ARE HAPPY TO DELIVER THIS TECHNOLOGY IN HARD ROCK FOR
TESTING AND EVALUATION SHORTLY. TO FOLLOW ON THE FIRE
CONTAINMENT, WE LEARNED SOMEBODY OPALESCENT. WE ARE ADDING SOME MECHANICAL
INTEGRITY TO THE FIRE BUCKET MATERIALS TO PREVENT LOSS OF
THAT INJECTED MATERIAL. WE HAVE SOME DESIGN PROJECT WE
ARE PURSUING RIGHT NOW THAT WILL GIVE US FIRE PROTECTION UNTIL
THE END OF THIS YEAR AS WELL. WITH THAT FOR MY PORTION, I
THINK WE ARE ON TIME OR MAYBE EVEN A MINUTE OR TWO AHEAD OF
TIME. I WOULD LIKE TO THANK VEDA AND
RODEZNO AND NTSB PHSMA FOR THE OPPORTUNITY — AND PHSMA FOR THE
OPPORTUNITY TO PREVENT OUR EXCITING RESULTS FOR THE SAFETY
OF LEON BATTERIES. WE BELIEVE THAT LITHIUM-ION
BATTERIES ARE SAFE, SO LIVE ON. IT IS NOT TO SAY THAT ALL
BATTERIES ARE UNSAFE. WE BELIEVE THERE ARE VERY
EXCELLENT DESIGNS OUT THERE, BUT FAILURES DO STILL OCCUR.
IT IS IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND THE BASIC FUNDAMENTAL POLITICAL
RIVAL COULD AFFECT A SHIPMENT OR
ANY COMBUSTIBLES STORED NEARBY. WITH THAT I WILL YIELD MY TIME.
[APPLAUSE] JONATHAN: THANKS COREY.
I’M JONATHAN KO. I WORK AT THE NAVAL SURFACE WARFARE CENTER, NOT FAR FROM THE
SEA COME WITH MY PARTNER CHRISTOPHER HENDRIX.
WE ARE DOING — WHAT WE ARE DOING FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERY
SAFETY IS DOING SOME TRANSPORT. [INDISCERNIBLE] ON THE TOP LEFT IS A BATTERY IN
A CELL PHONE, AND ON THE RIGHT IS THE INSTAGRAM IMAGE OF THAT
SAME BATTERY . EVENTUALLY
WE WILL GET THE POINT WHERE THE BATTERY INSIDE IS ON A
THERMAL RUNAWAY. [INDISCERNIBLE] IF THIS WERE TO GO OFF IN
SOMEONE’S POCKET, THEY WOULD PROBABLY BE WITHOUT A CELL
PHONE. WITH THE NAVY WE HAVE THE SAME
PROBLEM, EXCEPT INSTEAD OF DEALING WITH SMALL BATTERIES, WE
ARE DEALING WITH MUCH LARGER BATTERIES IN THE 500 WATT HOUR
RANGE. HERE WE HAVE A BATTERY PACK
INSTEAD OF PUTTING IT TOGETHER IN THE RETAINER TO THE POINT
WHERE YOU COULD SEE THIS FIRE COULD POTENTIALLY SPREAD TO
OTHER REGIONS, DAMAGING PERSONNEL OR OTHER EQUIPMENT ON
EITHER A SHIP OR SUBMARINE. UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS WHEN IT IS CONTROLLED, BATTERIES CAN
PROVIDE AN ENERGY THAT CAN LAST US FOR A LONG PERIOD OF TIME. HOWEVER, IF THEY ARE ABUSED AND
— HAVE USED FOR HAVE SOME FACTORY DEFECTS, IT CAN RESULT
IN VENTING, FIRE, RELEASE OF TOXIC MATERIALS, SHRAPNEL FROM
WITHIN THE CELL ITSELF. THE NAVY HAS BEEN USING BATTERIES SINCE THE 1970’S, AND
OVER A PERIOD OF TIME THERE HAVE
BEEN SEVERAL PERSONAL INJURIES AND EQUIPMENT.
AS A RESULT, THE DOD AND NAVY HAVE DEVELOPED A LITHIUM-ION
BATTERY SAFETY PROGRAM. THROUGH THAT, BATTERIES THAT ARE
BEING USED FOR THE NAVY OR MARINE CORPS NEED TO BE CP
CERTIFIED. CARTER ROCK IS ONE OF THE TECHNICAL AGENT FOR THIS
PROGRAM, AND WE PROVIDE TECHNICAL AGENCIES FOR THE NAVY
AND REINFORCEMENTS. AS YOU KNOW, THERE’S BEEN A FAIR
AMOUNT OF LITHIUM-ION FIRE INCIDENTS IN THE NEWS. THE FIRST PART IS HAZARD
IDENTIFICATION AND PREVENTION, WHICH IS WE ARE LOOKING INTO INTERNAL SHORT MECHANISMS THAT
IS RELEVANT TO TRANSPORT, AND LATER HAZARD MITIGATION’S WHERE
WE ARE LOOKING AT OTHER DEVICES FROM OTHER INDUSTRIES OR
ACADEMIA THAT CAN PROVIDE ADVANCE NOTICE FOR LITHIUM
BATTERY FIRES BEFORE THEY ACTUALLY HAPPEN. THE TRANSPORT INDUSTRY REMAINS
VULNERABLE TO A CURRENT OF INTEROPERABILITY — IMPROPER
VALIDITY AND INTERNAL SHORT-CIRCUITS IN THE ABSENCE OF
ASSOCIATED HAZARDS. THIS WILL INFORM US FOR FUTURE PROTECTIONS AGAINST FUTURE
FAILURES THAT CAN HAPPEN. WE ARE LOOKING INTO THE PLATING,
THE CONDITION OF THE SOLID ULTRALIGHT AND PERVASIVE — ALSO
INTERFACES BETWEEN THE ELECTRODE
AND ELECTROLYTE, AS WELL AS THE COPPER SOLUTION IN A CELL.
I WILL EXPLAIN THAT FURTHER. ONE OF THE FIRST THINGS WE WERE
LOOKING AT IS THAT LITHIUM BATTERIES, AFTER THEY HAVE BEEN
MANUFACTURED, YOU’RE THINKING THEY SIT IN STORAGE FOR A LONG.
OF TIME — A LONG PERIOD OF TIME .
WHAT CAN HAPPEN IS THE BATTERY CAN SELF-DESTRUCT AND EVENTUALLY
REACH TO A LOW-VOLTAGE — WHEN MADE TO REACH TO A LOW-VOLTAGE
STATE. THIS CAN POTENTIALLY BE AN ISSUE
WHEN THEY RECHARGE BACK, AS IT COULD POTENTIALLY BE A RISK WHEN
THESE MATTERS ARE BEING TRANSPORTED FROM ONE LOCATION TO
THE OTHER. — THESE BATTERIES ARE BEING
TRANSPORTED FROM ONE LOCATION TO THE OTHER.
FOR COPPER SOLUTION, WE FOUND OUT IN LITERATURE THAT COPPER
DISSOLVED INTO ELECTROLYTES AROUND THE CURRENT COLLECTOR FOR
THE ANODE. WE IMMERSE ME TO THE — THIS TO
BE 0.5 VOLTS. THAT CAN CHANGE WITH THE CHEMISTRY BETWEEN THE TWO, AS
WELL AS THE RATIO. CELLS THAT ARE HIGH-CAPACITY,
SOME OF THEM ALREADY HAVE THESE LOW VOLTAGES.
SOME OF THEM WERE HEALTHY. WHAT WE’VE DONE IS COMPARED USING X-RAY PHOTO ELECTRONICS TO
SEE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE TWO AND HOW THAT IMPACTS WHEN WE
DISCHARGE THE CELLS. WE CAN USE THIS TECHNIQUE TO SEE
CHANGES IN THE SERVICES AND BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY ELEMENTS ARE
CHEMICALS. HOW IT WORKS IS BY USING X-RAY
SOURCE, WE PUT IN OUR NORMAL AMOUNT OF ENERGY. THE ELECTRONS EMITTED FROM IT,
WE USE AN ELECTRONIC SECTOR — ELECTRON DETECTOR. BASED ON WHAT WE DETECT, WE CAN
DETERMINE INFORMATION ABOUT OUR SELF. WE CAN ALSO REMOVE SMALL PORTIONS OF THE SURFACE TO GET A
BETTER DEPTH PROFILE OF OUR SAMPLE. WE WILL GET A RESULT SOMETHING
LIKE THIS, WHERE YOU HAVE ON THE Y AXIS INTENSITY VERSUS BINDING ENERGY? WE CAN DETERMINE WHAT KIND OF
CHEMISTRIES ARE ON THE SURFACE. FIRST WE DISASSEMBLED THEM AND REMOVE PORTIONS OF THE
ELECTRODES FROM BOTH THE ANODE AND CATHODE, AND LOOKED AT IT. IF WE NEEDED TO TRADE ON THE
COPPER PEAKS, THERE’S VIRTUALLY NO PRESENCE OF COPPER.
HOWEVER, WHEN WE LOOK AT THE SAME RESULTS FOR A ZERO VOLT
WITH THE SAME VISIBILITY, YOU CAN SEE NOW THE COPPER, THERE IS
A MOUND OF COPPER. IT’S ABOUT 3.3%.
IN THE CATHODE COME WE SEE 0.9% ,
WHICH INDICATES THAT WHEN THESE CELLS ARE AT REDUCED CHARGE, THE
COVER IS LEACHED OUT AND POTENTIALLY COULD TRAVEL THROUGH
THE SEPARATOR AND AND UP ON THE CATHODE SIDE. WHETHER OR NOT THEY RECHARGE CAN
AFFECT SAFETY , MAYBE PROVIDING A
SOURCE WHERE LITHIUM CAN GROW ONTO THIS COVER PARTICULATES —
ONTO THOSE COPPER. PARTICULATES — COPPER
PARTICULATES.>>IT IS NOT AS CLEAR THE CONSTITUENTS OF COPPER. IT COULD INCLUDE COPPER OXIDE,
FLUORIDE, AND HYDROXIDE. WE HAVE DONE SOME YARD WORK AND — THE NEXT PART OF IT IS ASSESSING THE EARLY FAILURE
DETECTION. I WILL SHARE WHAT THOSE DEVICES
THAT WE WERE ABLE TO RECEIVE AND HOW THE DEVICE FORMED.
— DEVICE PERFORMED. HERE WE HAVE SOME OF THE
CHARACTERISTICS WHICH CAN BE FOUND BEFORE A LITHIUM-ION
BATTERY FAILURE EVENT OCCURS. YOU CAN LOOK AT THE VOLTAGE,
TEMPERATURE, AND CURRENT, OR POSSIBLY THE PARTICULATE
EMISSIONS. SOME OF THE TECHNOLOGIES ARE BEING USED IN SOME DEVICES THAT ARE CURRENTLY AVAILABLE, AND
SOME ARE STILL MAY PROCESS A STILL — SOME ARE STILL IN THE
PROCESS OF DEVELOPING. WE’VE TAKEN A LOOK AT ALL THESE
TECHNOLOGIES AND SPLIT THEM INTO THREE DIFFERENT PARTS.
THE FIRST PART IS TO PROMOTE DETECTION TECHNOLOGIES.
ONE DEVICE, YOU ARE MONITORING TO SEE IF THERE’S A ELECTROLYTES
WERE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS .
IF IT DETECTS IT, IT WILL NOTIFY YOU EITHER THROUGH THE BMS OR A
MONITOR THAT THERE’S SOME KIND OF ISSUE GOING ON WITHIN THE CELL OR THE BATTERY PACK.
WHAT IS NICE ABOUT THESE KINDS OF DEVICES IS IT OUT HAVE TO BE
ACTUALLY INTEGRATED WITH THE CELLS, AND IT CAN BE A
STANDALONE SEPARATE TO ITSELF. THE NEXT TYPE IS PHYSICAL SPACE REMOTE DETECTION TECHNOLOGIES,
WHERE PEOPLE ARE USING FIRST PRINCIPLES TO DETECT CHANGES THROUGH ACOUSTIC NOISE, ELECTRIC
FEEL CHANGE — FIELDS CHANGE. IT IS ALSO REMOTE, SO THESE
KINDS DO NOT HAVE TO BE PHYSICALLY CONNECTED TO THE CELL
OR THE PACK ITSELF IN ORDER TO GET THESE TYPES OF READINGS. LASTLY, THERE IS BATTERY
INTEGRATED TECHNOLOGY, BATTERIES THAT HAVE IMMIGRATED
TECHNOLOGIES. EITHER CONNECTING IT TO THE CELL
FOR PHYSICALLY APPLYING AROUND THE CELL, SUCH AS A STRING GAUGE
OR PRESSURE SENSOR MONITOR. THE FIRST TYPE WE HAVE HERE IS
RESISTANCE. YOU’RE LOOKING A LOT AT THE
MATERNAL — THE IT INTERNAL — THE INTERNAL RESISTANCE OF THE
CELL, CHANGING BASED ON THE VALUE OF TEMPERATURE OR USAGE.
ANY SIGNS OF THOSE CHANGE CAN LET YOU KNOW IF SOMETHING IS
WRONG. THE OTHER TYPE IS STRAINED AND
PRESSURE MANAGEMENT. A STRAIN GAUGE ON THE OUTSIDE OF
A POP CELL OR POSSIBLY A PHYSICAL CELL, AND THE MONITOR
CHANGES IN THAT YOU TO THAT WOULD, AT ONE POINT WHEN THE CELL WILL GO INTO A BATTERY.
HERE WE HAVE THE LIST OF COMPANIES AND INDUSTRY AND ACADEMIA THAT WE ARE WORKING
WITH TO ASSESS THESE TYPES OF TECHNOLOGIES. THE ONE I AM GOING TO SHARE WITH
YOU IS ONE THAT HAS BEEN LOANED
TO US TO PASS OUT. IT HAS 13 PHYSICAL LEADS YOU CAN
ATTACH TO 12 SEATBELTS OR HAVE CELLS IN POWER WITH EACH OTHER.
WE ATTACH THEM TO A BATTERY CELL, AND USING A RESISTOR, WE
SIMULATED AN INTERNAL SHORT. BASED OFF OF THE HIGHER THE
RESISTANCE, THE MUCH LESS — WE APPLY THE BOX TO DETECT, TO RUN ITS MONITORING SYSTEM, AND WE
ALSO HAVE FIVE RENDERED — 500 ALL THE WAY UP TO 1000 OHMS.
BASED OFF THE SCORE NUMBER, WE CAN DETECT WHETHER OR NOT THE
CELL IS BAD. WE HAVE OUR 18 650’S AND WITH THE BLUE DEMO BOX ON
THE OUTSIDE, WE APPLY EACH OF THE RESISTANCE AND RUN THEB BOX IMMEDIATELY AFTER APPLYING THE
SHORT AND 15 AFTER APPLYING THE SHORT TO GIVE TWO KINDS OF
SHORTS — ONE THAT SET ON THE APPEARS, AND ONE THAT HAS
ALREADY BEEN PRESENT IN THE CELL . SO, YOU CAN SEE ON THE RIGHT
TOP TABLE, FROM IMMEDIATELY APPLYING, — APPLYING THE SHORT,
YOU CAN SEE THE BOX IS ABLE TO DETERMINE THROUGH SCORE NUMBERS
WHICH TYPES OF SHORTS WE ARE APPLYING.
AND ON THE BOTTOM IS AFTER APPLYING FOR 15 MINUTES. YOU CAN SEE THAT WITH THE 15
MINUTES, THE SCORE NUMBERS ARE MUCH CLOSER TO EACH OTHER, AND
AFTER RUNNING MULTIPLE SCANS WITH THE SAME LEVEL OF SHORTS,
THE SCORE NUMBER DOES CHANGE BUT
THEY SETTLE INTO A CERTAIN SCORE RANGE.
WE DETERMINED THAT IF A SCORE APPEARS IN A CERTAIN AREA, THEN
YOU CAN HAVE SOME KIND OF INFLUENCE, WHETHER OR NOT IT IS
A 500, OR A 400 SHORT. IN ADDITION TO — WITH THAT TEST
WE ALSO TRIED CHANGING THE TEMPERATURE TO SEE HOW
TEMPERATURE AFFECTS THE PERFORMANCE OF THE BOX
, AND WHAT WE DID WAS ASSOCIATE THE 18650 AT 10, 25, 35, AND 50 DEGREES
FOR ONE TO TWO HOURS AND THE SAME TO RELATED SHORTS AND
MEASURED IT ON THE BOX. ON THE TABLE HERE, ON THE LEFT
COLUMN, HIS TEMPERATURE. ON THE RIGHT COLUMN IS THE
SHORTS THAT WE APPLIED. IF YOU LOOK AT THE NUMBERS THAT ARE HIGHLIGHTED IN RED, THEY ARE
ALL STIMULATED — SIMILAR TO EACH OTHER, WHICH INDICATES THE
BOX MAY NOT BE ABLE TO DETECT —
THE BOX, IF YOU ARE SEEING A SCORE OF -6.8, THEY CONSIDER THE
CELL TO BE UNHEALTHY, HAVING A 300, 400, OR 500 SHORT, EVEN OF THE SAME NUMBER WOULD BE
CONSIDERED AS NO SHORT. ON THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF THE
SPECTRUM, AT A COLD TEMPERATURE, A -1.2 SCORE NUMBER CAN MAKE — CAN BE CONSIDERED AS A SHORT
EVEN THOUGH IT IS HEALTHY AT 25 DEGREES.
SO, DOES THAT MEAN THAT THE BOX DOESN’T WORK AS WELL?
NOT NECESSARILY, BECAUSE YOU CAN ALSO ADD A THERMAL COUPLE, AND
IT WILL GIVE YOU A ROUGH IDEA ON WHAT TEMPERATURE THE CELLS MIGHT BE SITTING AT, OR WHAT
TEMPERATURE THE ENVIRONMENT IS AT. HOWEVER, IN ALL THE
TEMPERATURES THAT WE HAVE DONE, YOU CAN SEE
THAT THERE IS A DISTINCT SCORE DIFFERENCE NUMBER AT THE
100-OWNED SHORT COMPARED TO THE SMALLER AMOUNTS.
THE OTHER THING WE DID WAS TESTED WITH THE SAME
LARGE-FORMATS CELLS THAT I DESCRIBED BEFORE.
APPLYING THE SAME AMOUNT OF SHORTS IS MUCH MORE DIFFICULT TO
DETERMINE A SHORT BETWEEN 500 TO
200, HOWEVER IT IS STILL THE SAME WHEN WE APPLIED THE 100
SHORT UNDERSCORE NUMBER IS NOW -19 IS SUPPOSED TO AROUND -30
FOUR THE OTHER NO SHORT AS WELL AS I OTHER SMALLER SHORT
CONDITIONS. SO, EVEN THOUGH THE BOX WORKS FOR THE HUNDRED-OWNED SHORT, IT ALSO MEANS THAT IT WON’T BE ABLE
TO DETECT THESE SHORTS. IT IS MORE TO THE POINT THAT THE
BOX CAN DETERMINE THE DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN — THE QUESTION IS AT WHAT POINT DOES THIS BECOME A PROBLEM FOR A BATTERY AND WHETHER OR NOT THAT COULD BE AN
ISSUE, SO SETTING AN UPPER LIMIT
OR THE DETERMINATION OF WHAT RESISTANCE THE SHORT NEEDS TO BE
AS THE FINAL — AT THE FINAL POINT CAN HELP DETERMINE IF A CELL IS BAD OR GOOD.
LASTLY, WE RAN THE SAME BOX ON OUR LARGE-FORMAT CELLS BY TAKING
LARGE-FORMAT CELLS AND HOLDING IT AT LOW MULTITUDES FOR SIX TO
EIGHT MONTHS, MOVING THEM, PUTTING THEM IN THE ABUSIVE TEST
CHAMBER, AND PUTTING IT BACK UP TO A HEALTHY VOLTAGE.
USING THE BOX, WE RESCANNED THE CELL, AND YOU CAN SEE BY THE
HEALTHY CELL, 3.6 MEETS A SCORE NUMBER OF -30, WHEREAS THE 0.5 CELL, WHEN WE CHARGE IT BACK UP
TO 50%, THE SCORE IS -10%, WHICH INDICATES 100 OR LESS.
I WOULD LIKE TO — THESE ARE THE
COLLABORATORS AND THE PEOPLE WHO ARE INVOLVED IN MY TEAM, AND I
WOULD ALSO LIKE TO THANK — FOR
THEIR SUPPORT IN THIS PROJECT. AND I WILL TAKE ANY QUESTIONS.
[APPLAUSE] SCOTT: SOUTHWEST RESEARCH
INSTITUTE — INTERESTING WORK YOU GUYS ARE DOING THERE.
I HAD A COUPLE OF QUESTIONS THAT MIGHT BE OFF BASE, BUT I THOUGHT
I WAS ASK SINCE YOU GUYS ARE THE EXPERTS.
THE THERMO DEVICE DR. LOVE MENTIONED EARLIER, IS THAT MEANT
TO REPRESENT WHAT MIGHT HAPPEN IN A FIRE, A LONGER-TERM FIRE,
OR IS YOUR GOAL TO UNDERSTAND THE BASIC FUNCTION OF THE
LITHIUM CELLS? JONATHAN: GOOD QUESTION.
THE PURPOSE OF THAT IS TO IDENTIFY A SHORT-CIRCUIT
TRIGGER, TO INITIATE AN INTERNAL SHORT CIRCUIT ON DEMAND.
THAT HAS BEEN ELUSIVE TO THE COMMUNITY.
WE HAVE WAYS TO MIMIC THOSE TYPES OF FAILURES THROUGH
STRAPPING A CARTRIDGE HEATER TO A CELL, TAKING ABOVE 200 DEGREES
C, OR USING PENETRATION TESTS TO
BE SOMEWHAT SUBJECTIVE, AND THE RESULTS ARE LARGELY INSTANT —
INCONCLUSIVE IN OUR ESTIMATION. WE ARE LOOKING FOR A WAY TO
INDUCE A FAILURE IN A MORE REALISTIC MANNER — SOMETHING
YOU WOULD ACTUALLY SEE IN THE REAL WORLD.
SO, THE THERMAL GRADING BASICALLY JUST ALLOWS US TO PLAY
SOME TRICKS WITH THE ELECTRIC CHEMISTRY WITHOUT TAKING INTO A
VERY ABUSIVE, SORT OF NONREALISTIC CONDITION.
SCOTT: DO YOU RUN A FORCED OVERCHARGING TEST BECAUSE I KNOW
YOU CAN MAKE THEM FAIL THAT WAY, TOO, RIGHT? CHRISTOPHER: OK. YES.
THAT IS A TOOL IN THE TOOLBOX FOR BATTERY SAFETY, AND
JONATHAN’S TEAM ARE EXPERTS IN THAT. THAT IS A FAILURE MODE OF
INTEREST, BECAUSE THAT IS A REALISTIC FAILURE, BUT THE
INTERNAL SHORT, I WOULD SAY HAS BEEN ELUSIVE, AND IT WAS AN AREA
RIGHT FOR A TECHNOLOGY SOLUTION.>>ANOTHER QUESTION — FOLKS BACK HOME ARE SMARTER THAN I AM
ON THIS, THEY SAID SAMSUNG BATTERY PROBLEMS ARE PROBABLY
DUE TO GEOMETRY. EVERYONE IS CHINA MAKE
EVERYTHING SMALL — EVERYONE IS TRYING TO MAKE EVERYTHING SMALL,
SO A POTENTIAL FAILURE MECHANISM MIGHT BE THE CELLS WERE TOO
CLOSE TOGETHER, THERMAL CROSSTALK, OR SOMETHING.
I DON’T KNOW IF YOU GUYS ALSO EXAMINED CELL GEOMETRY WHEN YOU DO YOUR TESTING ANALYSIS — THE
PHYSICAL GEOMETRY OF THE CELLS, DOES THAT ENTER INTO THE
STUDIES? JONATHAN: FOR THESE TYPES OF
TESTS?>>FOR THE MULTI-CELL BATTERY PACKS. JUST CURIOUS.
JONATHAN: SO, IN TERMS OF WHERE THE CELL IS LOCATED RELATIVE TO
EACH OTHER.>>RIGHT. JONATHAN: SHORT ANSWER, NO. WHEN WE ARE LOOKING AT SOME OF
THE CELLS, THERE DEFTLY POSITION
WHERE THE CELL IS LOCATED IN THE OTHER ELECTRONICS ARE LOCATED.
WE DO LOOK AT — I GUESS MORE SPECIFICALLY WE DON’T REALLY
CHANGE WHEN WE DO THE TESTING —
WE DON’T CHANGE THE POSITION OF THE CELL.>>YOU CAN’T REALLY CONTROL OF
THE MANUFACTURERS MAKE IT.>>I WAS JUST HERE IS SPIRIT ONE
LAST THING, BASED ON YOUR STUDIES, DO YOU THINK IT IS —
ONE — I WAS JUST SAYING. ONE LAST THING, BASED ON YOUR
STUDIES, YOU THINK IT IS POSSIBLE TO TRANSFER — MAYBE
INDUSTRY DOES THAT ALREADY. DO YOU THINK IT IS POSSIBLE?
JONATHAN: AS I SAID — SAFER IN AN UNCHARGED STATE, HOWEVER THE
CONCERN IS LEAVING IT AT SUCH A LOW CHARGE WHAT COULD
POTENTIALLY HAPPEN IS THE BATTERY CAN SELF DISCHARGE.
IF YOU ARE INITIALLY TO SEND IT OUT AT 0%, BY THE TIME THE
CONSUMER OR WHOEVER RECEIVES IT,
IT MIGHT DISCHARGE TO A LOWER STATE.
NOW THAT THERE IS THAT CONCERN OF WHETHER OR NOT THAT IS GOING
TO BE A POTENTIAL SAFETY ISSUE.>>THAT IS INTERESTING.>>I WOULD LIKE TO ADD ONTO
THAT. THERE IS A SWEET SPOT. I SHOWED THE ACCELERATED RATE —
THE ANSWER AND WE HAVE IN THE LAB THAT CAN TAKE CELLS TO
FAILURE. SOMETIMES IT IS FRUSTRATING WHEN
WE ARE INTENTIONALLY TRYING TO TAKE A CELL TO FAILURE AND WE
GET A POOHF INSTEAD OF A LARGE BANK.
THEY CAN BE ENERGY INTENSIVE. ON THE LOWER END, THEY CAN BE
MANAGED AND MUCH MORE DENIED. I THINK IT IS A SWEET SPOT
JONATHAN IS TALKING TO. AT 0%, THERE ARE ISSUES WITH
SELF DISCHARGE GOING BELOW, BUT THE 30% RULE IS WISE.>>THANKS. VERY GOOD WORK.>>ALL RIGHT, IF I CAN JUST
HAMMER A POINT HOME — COREY MENTIONED IT, AND IT IS WORTH
REPEATING. LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES, AND JUST CHARGE STORAGE IN GENERAL, IT IS
SOMETHING THAT HOLDS QUITE A BIT OF ENERGY IN A SMALL PACKAGE.
IT IS NOT A VERY HIGH ENERGY DENSITY.
YOU USE IT TO POWER YOUR CELL PHONE, LAPTOP, OVER SEVERAL
HOURS, RIGHT? YOU RELY ON THIS TO POWER THINGS
THAT HAVE A SIGNIFICANT POWER DEMAND OVER A LONG PERIOD OF
TIME. WE COMPRESS THAT, LET’S SAY
EIGHT HOURS, FIVE HOURS, SIX HOURS, DOWN TO, YOU KNOW, A
MATTER OF ONE SECOND OR TWO SECONDS TO RELEASE THAT ENERGY
— AS YOU CAN IMAGINE, THE RESULTS ARE PRETTY DRAMATIC.
THIS IS WHY WE CARE ABOUT THIS. NORMALLY, AGAIN, AS COREY
MENTIONED, AND IT IS WORTH REPEATING — BATTERIES ARE JUST
MADE POORLY. THEIR SAFETY RECORD IS PRETTY
GOOD, BUT WHEN THEY DO FAIL , THE
FAILURE IS PRETTY DRAMATIC, AND THE EFFECTS COULD BE PRETTY
CATASTROPHIC OPTICAL IN TRANSPORTATION.
THIS IS WHY WE LOOK AT THESE THINGS AND WHY WE RELY ON OUR
NAVY PARTNERS. SO, WITH THAT, IF YOU GUYS HAVE ANY MORE QUESTIONS FOR THESE
FOLKS, OTHERWISE I AM GOING TO GIVE YOU GUYS A 15-MINUTE GIFT
FOR EXTRA LUNCH. YOU HAVE ANYTHING TO ADD?
ALL RIGHT. ENJOY L’ENFANT PLAZA. ONE FLOOR ABOVE US THERE IS A
FOOD COURT, A BUNCH OF FOOD PLACES, AND IF YOU ARE SAVVY
WITH THE AREA, AND YOU CAN MAKE YOUR WAY DOWN TO MARYLAND
AVENUE, WHICH IS THE OTHER ENTRANCE TO L’ENFANT PLAZA, THEY
HAVE A LOT OF FOOD TRUCK THERE. SO, THAT IS THE OPTION.
O, YOU, PLEASE BE BACK AT 1:00 P.M. — OH, YEAH PLEASE BE BACK AT 1:00 P.M.. 1:00 P.M.. THANK YOU.>>ALL RIGHT, EVERYONE.
THANKS AGAIN FOR COMING BACK. WE HOPE YOU HAD A DECENT LUNCH.
I KNOW THERE WAS A CROWD OF THERE ON THE SECOND FLOOR.
IT IS KIND OF UNPREDICTABLE. THANKS.
WE ARE GOING TO START THE POST-LUNCH SESSION.
I WILL TURN IT OVER TO OUR MASTER OF CEREMONIES FOR THIS
SESSION, BRIAN MOORE. HE IS AN ENGINEER IN OUR
ENGINEERING RESEARCH AND SCIENCES DIVISION.
WITHOUT FURTHER I DO, — ADO, BRIAN, TAKE IT AWAY.
BRIAN: MY NAME IS BRIAN MOORE. I’M AN ENGINEER IN THE
ENGINEERING BRANCH WITH THE SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, AND
RESEARCH OFFICE. MY WORK CONSISTS OF HELPING TO
MANAGE THE TRANSPORT OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS.
I WORK WITH PRESSURE VESSELS, METALLIC PRESSURE VESSELS AND
COMPOSITE PRESSURE VESSELS. HOWEVER, FREQUENTLY, I MYSELF AND OTHER MEMBERS OF THE
ENGINEERING STAFF ARE ASKED TO COOPERATE WITH THE R&D STAFF IN
DEVELOPING AND MANAGING RESEARCH PROJECTS.
IN A NUTSHELL, THE R&D BRANCH FUNDS THE RESEARCH AND THAT PARTICULAR ACTIVITY FALLS UNDER
THE PACKAGING INTEGRITY PORTION OR GOAL OF THE R&D STRATEGIC
PLAN. THE RESEARCH IS QUITE BROAD.
IT CAN SPAN FROM IMPROVING EXISTING PACKAGING MATERIALS TO
DEVELOPING NEW PACKAGING MATERIALS THAT MEET THE LEVEL OF
SAFETY OF THE CURRENT REGULATIONS WHILE ALSO TRYING TO
DECREASE COST TO INDUSTRY TO DEVELOP THINGS TO NEW PERFORMANCE STANDARDS.
WE WILL HAVE FIVE SPEAKERS WHO WILL DISCUSS THEIR WORK IN
RESEARCH PROJECTS THAT HAVE BEEN
ONGOING WITH FMHSA. OUR FIRST SPEAKER IS DR. ANDY
SLIFKA. HE HAS WORKED FOR THE NATIONAL
INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR OVER 30 YEARS.
HE RECEIVED A PHD FROM THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINDS. HE HAS DEALT PRIMARILY WITH THE
DEVELOPMENT OF MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES.
OVER THE PAST 10 YEARS, HE HAS BEEN INVOLVED IN RESEARCHING THE
EFFECTS OF HYDROGEN ON STEELS. DR. SLIFKA’S PRESENTATION WILL
BE ON HIGH-STRENGTH STEEL CYLINDERS THAT ARE USED TO
TRANSPORT HYDROGEN-BEARING GASES.
WE HAVE ABOUT 24 TOTAL MINUTES FOR EACH SPEAKER.
20 MINUTES TO SPEAK AND FOUR MINUTES FOR QUESTIONS.
IF YOU WRAP UP QUICK, I’M SURE WE WOULD LOVE TO HEAR MORE OF
WHAT YOU HAVE TO SAY IF PEOPLE HAVE QUESTIONS.
ANDY: THANK YOU FOR HAVING ME HERE.
MY PRESENTATION SHOULD BE COMING UP SOON. THERE WE GO.
FOR OUR WORK AT NIST IN BOULDER, WE HAVE A BUNCH
OF US WORKING ON THIS PROGRAM HERE. LIZ
IS NO LONGER ON THE PROJECT. MATT IS A FORMER POSTDOC. PETER HAS BEEN THERE FOREVER,
LIKE ME. NATE IS A NEW PERSON. DAMIAN.
ROBERT WAS A FORMER POSTDOC OF HOURS.
HE DOES THE MODELING ON THIS PROJECT.
HE IS NOW AT UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA.
ONE OF HIS STUDENTS IS DOING SOME OF THE MODELING, JUST
DEFENDED HIS THESIS, HIS MASTER’S THESIS, SUCCESSFULLY,
LAST WEEK. WE HAVE A COUPLE OF CONSULTANTS.
AND MARK HAS BEEN DOING PRESSURE
VESSEL CYLINDERS FOR YEARS AND YEARS.
THAT’S WHY HE IS THE TECHNICAL CONTACT FROM DOT ON THIS
PARTICULAR PROJECT. LET’S MOVE THE SLIDES.
THERE WE GO. BEFORE I GET INTO THIS, LET ME JUST SAY WHERE THIS THING SITS.
SKIP TALKED ABOUT THAT NEXT INCREMENT OF SAFETY.
THAT’S WHAT THIS PROJECT FEEDS INTO THAT.
RICK TALKED ABOUT A NUMBER OF THINGS, BUT TWO OF THE THINGS
THAT THIS PROJECT WORKS ON, BOTH SAFETY AND INNOVATION.
THIS SLIDE — WAY BACK, THIS PROBLEM HAPPENED IN EUROPE.
AS FAR AS I KNOW IT DIDN’T HAPPEN IN THE U.S.
WHEN YOU HAVE HYDROGEN GAS INSIDE THE CYLINDER, THIS SORT
OF THING CAN HAPPEN, AND THAT IS WHAT STARTED ALL THIS WORK
WORLDWIDE ON HOW DO WE DO BETTER STANDARDS FOR CYLINDERS FOR
HYDROGEN-BEARING GASES. WHAT HAPPENS TODAY, WHAT WE ARE
WORRIED ABOUT FOR SAFE TRANSPORTATION OF
HYDROGEN-BEARING GASES IS WHERE YOU HAVE AN OLDER CYLINDER.
A CRACK DEVELOPS. IT WILL GO THROUGH IF IT IS NOT
FOUND. THE GREAT THING IS, THE STANDARDS, IF A VESSEL IS NOT
DESIGNED ACCORDING TO THOSE STANDARDS, IT WILL LAST FOR
DECADES. WE REALLY DON’T HAVE VERY MANY
PROBLEMS. SOME OF THE ISSUES IN THIS AREA
IS THERE ARE SO FEW FAILURES, THAT HOW DO YOU ATTACK THIS
PROBLEM? OK. SO, A COUPLE OF QUESTIONS THAT
WE ARE LOOKING AT. THIS IS WHERE THE INNOVATION
COMES IN. CAN HIGHER STRENGTH STEELS BE
USED? IN THIS AREA OF HYDROGEN-BEARING
GASES, IF YOU KEEP THE ULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH OF THE STEEL
YOU ARE USING FOR THE CYLINDERS BELOW A CERTAIN LEVEL, YOU WILL
NOT HAVE A PROBLEM. THAT HAS BEEN PROVEN IT WORKS
VERY WELL. BUT CAN WE USE HIGHER STRENGTH
STEELS? THEY ARE CLEANER. MAYBE THEY WILL PASS THE TESTS.
SO, ANOTHER ISSUE IS HOW SAFE ARE EACH OF THE THREE TEST
METHODS. WE WORK WITH A COMMITTEE 11 114-4. THEY HAVE THREE TESTS. IF YOU WANT TO USE A MATERIAL
OVER A CERTAIN STRENGTH LEVEL, YOU WOULD USE THOSE TEST METALS.
ONE OF THE ISSUES IS, THEY HAVE BEEN ARGUING FOR OVER 20 YEARS,
OF MY TEST METHOD IS BETTER THAN YOURS.
I WILL GO INTO THAT A LITTLE BIT ON FURTHER SLIDES HERE.
ONE OF THE ISSUES WITH THAT, IF I LIVE IN A PART OF THE WORLD
WHERE THEY USE METHOD A, EVEN THOUGH THE ISO STANDARD SAYS YOU
SHOULD ACCEPT B AND C, THEY DON’T. THE U.S. USES METHOD C. THE QUESTION IS CAN WE HARMONIZE
THE STANDARD. IT’S BEEN OVER 20 YEARS AND SOME VERY EXCELLENT PEOPLE HAVE
WORKED ON THIS. I’M NOT SURE IT CAN BE FIXED,
BUT WE ARE TRYING. WHAT WE ARE TRYING TO DO IS
BRING MORE PHYSICS INTO IT. WHAT WE ARE DOING IS STRAIN-LIFE
MEASUREMENTS. YOU SEPARATE THE ELASTIC AND
PLASTIC COMPONENTS. IF YOU DO A MATRIX OF TESTS, YOU CAN GET THE WHOLE FIELD OF
STRESS VERSUS STRAIN. WE ARE TRYING TO TAKE METHODS A,
B, AND C AND PUT THEM IN THAT FIELD AND SHOW PEOPLE YOU CAN
PUT ALL THESE TEST METHODS ON A LEVEL PLAYING FIELD AND THEN YOU
CAN ARGUE ABOUT HOW CONSERVATIVE YOU WANT THE DESIGN TO BE.
THERE IS A LITTLE BIT OF MEASUREMENTS IN THIS PROJECT AND
A LOT OF MODELING IN THIS PROJECT.
THE BASELINE MATERIAL THAT WE USED FOR THE STUDY HAS ULTIMATE
TENSILE STRENGTH OF 724 MPA. THE CAT AND THE CODE IS 950.
IT HAS A TENSILE STRENGTH OF 1040, WHICH PUTS US INTO THE
REGIME OF NEW. YOU CAN ACTUALLY USE THOSE
HIGHER STRENGTH MATERIALS FOR NON-HYDROGEN
-BEARING GASES RIGHT NOW, AND THEY’VE HAD GOOD
SUCCESS WITH THAT, SO COMPANIES WOULD LIKE TO SEE, CAN WE USE
THAT FOR HYDROGEN. IN OUR STRAIN LIFE, WE USE THIS
THING CALLED ACCUMULATED IN A RUSTIC — ACCUMULATED INELASTIC STRAIN. I WILL TALK ABOUT THAT.
THEY HAVE DONE SOME EXCELLENT WORK ON THAT.
WE WILL GO INTO THE COMPARISON OF THOSE METHODS,
MICROSTRUCTURE, AND A LITTLE BIT ON CRACK-TIP MECHANICS.
METHOD A IS A RUPTURED DISC. YOU TAKE A THIN PIECE OF THAT
MATERIAL, PUT GAS ON ONE SIDE OF IT, BLOW OF A BUBBLE,
ESSENTIALLY. YOU DO IT IN HELIUM AS YOUR
BASIS. YOU DO IT IN HYDROGEN. YOU LOOK AT THE RATIO BETWEEN
THE PRESSURE IT TAKES FOR THOSE TWO.
THE ISSUE WITH THAT TEST IS THAT YOU HAVE VERY LARGE TEST THE
CITY — LARGE PLASTICITY. THE CODES ARE TO KEEP YOU AWAY FROM LARGE-SCALE PLASTICITY, FOR
ONE THING. WE ARE NOT WORRIED ABOUT IT
FALLING OFF THE TRUCK. METHOD B IS RISING ROAD WHERE
YOU HAVE A CRACK IN IT. WE THINK IT IS A NICER TEST
BECAUSE IT ALREADY HAS A FLAW. YOU CAN’T KEEP FLAWS OUT OF
MATERIALS. IF YOU ARE INCREMENTALLY PULLING
ON THAT UNTIL YOU GET THE CRACK TO MOVE, THE NICE THING IS YOU
GET A DESIGN CRITERIA OUT OF THAT, BUT A LOT OF PEOPLE DON’T
LIKE THAT BECAUSE THE FRACTURE THRESHOLD THAT YOU GET IS SO
CONSERVATIVE THAT PEOPLE THINK IT OVERDOES THE PROBLEM.
THE METHOD C IS ALSO KNOWN AS WEDGE-OPENING LOAD TYPE TEST,
WHERE YOU TAKE A BOLD AND PUT A CERTAIN DISPLACEMENT ON THAT
CRACK, THEN YOU SOAK THAT IN HYDROGEN AND C OF THE CRACK
MOVES OR NOT — AND SEE IF THE CRACK MOVES OR NOT.
IT SIMULATES THE PROBLEM YOU’RE LOOKING AT.
A CYLINDER SITTING THERE, PRESSURIZED. IT HAS A FLAW.
IS THAT FLAW GOING TO MOVE? THAT’S THE PRIMARY THING YOU ARE
WORRIED ABOUT. IF THE CRACK MOVES, IT LOWERS
THE LOAD ON IT. YOU WANT TO BE CONSTANT LOAD. IT’S MUCH MORE EXPENSIVE TO HAVE
A CHAMBER THAT PUTS A CONSTANT LOAD ON IT THAN TO DO A CONSTANT
DISPLACEMENT. WHAT WE ARE DOING IS STRAIN-LIFE
MEASUREMENTS. THIS IS WHAT IT LOOKS LIKE, THE
DATA. THIS IS RAW DATA. WE STARTED DOING THE
MEASUREMENTS ON HYDROGEN. OUR SCREEN RATE FOR ALL OF THESE
TESTS IS .008. WE ADJUST THE AMPLITUDE, THE
STRAIN AMPLITUDE, WHICH IN THIS CASE IS .0098 AND THE FREQUENCY
TO GIVE US .008 STRAIN RATE ON ALL OF THESE TESTS.
IT IS RIDICULOUSLY DIFFICULT TO DO
, BUT YOUR ALIGNMENT HAS TO BE FANTASTIC.
IT GIVES YOU THIS VERY INTERESTING DATA.
FOR THESE MATERIALS, THIS IS 4130 STEEL.
HARD MATERIALS WILL SOFTEN. SOFT MATERIALS WILL HARDEN WHEN
YOU DO STRAIN LIFE TESTING ON THEM.
YOU CAN SEE ON THE AXES THAT IT STARTS OUT BASICALLY —
YOU HAVE A TENSILE TEST AT THE BEGINNING.
AS THAT LOOP GOES AROUND, THAT FOOTBALL CANTS SIDEWAYS BECAUSE
YOU’RE SOFTENING THE MATERIAL. YOU’RE HAVING A LOOK AT THE RATE
OF SOFTENING. YOUR ACCUMULATING PLASTIC DAMAGE
— YOU ARE ACCUMULATING PLASTIC DAMAGE IN THE MATERIAL.
THE FIRST CYCLE, YOU HAVE THAT ELASTIC, PERFECTLY PLASTIC
BEHAVIOR. WE IGNORE THAT BEHAVIOR, BECAUSE
WE ARE NOT CONCERNED WITH THE PRESSURE VESSEL JUST GETTING
FILLED ONCE AND FAILING. ALL WE ARE CONCERNED ABOUT IS
GETTING THOSE CORNERS TO MODEL CORRECTLY.
AIF I DO A NUMBER OF THEM, YOU CAN SEE THE MOVEMENT.
YOU CAN SEE THE CYCLES. WE ARE ABLE TO GET THE FIFTH
FAIRLY WELL AS WE ACCUMULATE STRAIN IN THE MATERIAL.
IF I LOOK AT THE FIT ON ONE OF THEM, YOU CAN SEE WE ARE NOT
FITTING THE ENTIRE — I’M CALLING IT A FOOTBALL,
PERFECTLY. WE WANT TO FIT THE CORNERS
REALLY WELL. THAT’S WHERE THE IMPORTANT
INFORMATION IS COMING OUT OF TESTS.
IF I DO THIS TEST IN HYDROGEN THEN, I’M USING 18 AND PRI — 18 MPRI HYDROGEN. THIS IS THE STRAIN AMPLITUDE I
USED, 1/3 OF THE AMPLITUDE THAT I USED ON THIS AIR TEST HERE.
YOU CAN SEE THE FOOTBALL IS QUITE THIN ON THIS.
THE OVERALL STRAIN RATE IS .008 ON THIS.
THE INTERESTING THING THAT HAPPENS IS THAT, BECAUSE YOU ARE
IN HYDROGEN, YOU GET YOUR FAILURE THERE A VERY — FAILURE
VERY, VERY EARLY.IF I RAN THIS TEST IN AIR —
FROM THIS DATA, YOU CAN SEE, ON THE UPPER RIGHT-HAND CORNER,
WHAT’S HAPPENING IS YOU GENERATE A CRACK, THEN YOU ARE STARTING
TO OPEN THAT CRACK ON THE TENSION SIDE THE UPPER RIGHT,
PORTION. YOU ARE PUSHING THE CRACK BACK
TOGETHER. OPENING THE CRACK AS TIME GOES
BY. YOU GENERALLY DON’T TAKE THE TEST THIS FAR.
IT WAS THE FIRST ONE WE EVER RAN AND IT FAILED AT LESS THAN 1/50TH OF THE CYCLES IT WOULD
TAKE IN AIR, SO HYDROGEN HAS A HUGE EFFECT ON THESE STEELS.
WE HAVEN’T GOTTEN TO THE HIGHEST RANKED MATERIAL YET.
THE HYDROGEN EFFECT WE HAVE TO MODEL IS ENORMOUS.
OUR MODELING WOULD LOOK AT THESE DEFAMATION RESPONSES.
WE USE THE PLASTICITY MODEL BECAUSE THAT INCORPORATES BOTH
ISOTROPIC AND — YOU HAVE TO SEPARATE THOSE TWO CALIBRATIONS BECAUSE THEY ARE
TWO SEPARATE EFFECTS. THE RED LINE ON THERE, YOU TAKE YOUR BLUE STRAND LIFE
CURVE, TAKE YOUR IN-SERVICE CONDITIONS, AND MATCH THEM TO A
DIFFERENT R RATIO. YOU MAX THEM TO, IN THIS CASE,
IT IS JUST IN AIR. THIS DOESN’T HAVE HYDROGEN YET.
YOU DECIDE WHAT YOUR STRAIN IS GOING TO BE.
YOUR STRAIN AMPLITUDE. IT GIVES YOU A LIFETIME ON THE
BOTTOM. IN THIS CASE, IN-SERVICE CONDITIONS APPEAR TO GIVE YOU
ABOUT 6000 CYCLES, WHICH FOR A GAS CYLINDER IS EXCELLENT.
YOU FIGURE YOU WILL FILL THAT THING MAYBE ONCE A WEEK, THAT’S
120 YEARS THAT THE CYLINDER WILL LAST IN AIR.
BUT NOW WE HAVE TO MODEL HYDROGEN. WHAT YOU EVENTUALLY
DO, AND THIS IS IN AIR, YOU CAN TAKE YOUR
CONDITIONS FROM THE CTLC, CONTACT TENSION SPECIMEN LOAD
CONTROL, METHOD B. FIRST IS METHOD A. METHOD C. I.S. IS IN SERVICE CONDITION.
WE PUT THE TENSILE TEST ON THE END OF THAT TO SHOW YOU THE
COMPARISON WITH THOSE THREE TEST METHODS.
FROM THIS TYPE OF DATA, YOU CAN MAKE A GRAPH LIKE THIS OR A MATRIX LIKE THIS, SO YOU CAN
SAY, I LOVE METHOD C. IF I HAVE LOTS OF GOOD DATA IN
METHOD C, HOW DOES IT COMPARE? IT TELLS YOU HOW MUCH
ACCUMULATED DUST THE CITY YOU WOULD HAVE — ACCUMULATED
PLASTICITY YOU WOULD HAVE FOR THE OTHER TEST METHODS.
THE OTHER THING WE CAN DO WITHIN
A MODEL IS LOOK AT MICROSTRUCTURE. THIS IS A 100% MICROSTRUCTURE WE
USED WAY BACK ON THE MODEL. SINCE IT’S ALL — IT’S A NICE,
EASY STRUCTURE, WE FIGURED OUT HOW TO TEST A LATE THE GRAINS —
TESSA LATE — TESSELATE THE GRAINS.
WE CAN DO EBSD ON THESE TYPE OF THINGS.
ON THE LEFT IS THE ACTUAL EBSD OF OUR MATERIAL.
ON THE RIGHT IS HOW ABAQUS USED IT TO MODEL.
WE CAN MODEL TEXTURE IN THESE MATERIALS ALSO.
SOME OF THEM HAVE TEXTURE AND SOME OF THEM DON’T.
IT DEPENDS ON HOW THICK YOU MAKE THE STEEL.
OUR BASELINE MATERIAL ACTUALLY COMES, BECAUSE IT IS EASIER TO
MAKE THICK SPECIMENS, WE HAVE ONE OF THOSE 6000 PSI CYLINDERS
THAT HAS A NICE, THICK WALL ON IT.
IT’S MUCH MORE DIFFICULT TO DO THE TEST ON THE SMALLER SAMPLES.
WE DO MOST OF THE BASELINE TESTS ON THAT TO GET IT RUNNING.
SO, WE CAN ALSO DO THAT IN 3-D IN ABAQUS, WHICH IS NICE.
ON THIS, YOU CAN PUT THE CURSOR ON THE CYAN 3D STRUCTURE.
IT SHOULD COME UP AND RUN. THIS IS LOOKING AT DIFFUSIVITY
OF HYDROGEN. WILL THAT RUN?
CAN YOU PUT THE CURSOR ON THE MODEL? THERE WE GO.
YOU CAN SEE THE HYDROGEN DIFFUSING UP INTO THAT GRAIN
FROM THE BOTTOM. WE CAN CHANGE.
IT IS FAIRLY EASY TO CHANGE THE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS OF EACH
DIFFERENT GRAIN. IF I DO A COMPLICATED MATERIAL,
I HAVE DIFFERENT PHASES AND THE DIFFUSIVITY IS DIFFERENT IN THE
DIFFERENT PHASES. I CAN ADD GRAIN-BOUNDARY EFFECT TO MY MODEL.
I HAVE FIGURED OUT HOW TO DO THAT IN ABAQUS.
A WHILE BACK, SOME PEOPLE AT SANDIA DID SOME MEASUREMENTS.
THIS IS A 4130 TYPE STEEL. THEY DID THESE MEASUREMENTS AT
6500 PSI. THEY DID A NUMBER OF DIFFERENT
FREQUENCIES. THE DOTTED LINE IS WHERE THE
CODE TELLS YOU, YOU WANT TO BE BELOW OR AT THAT FOR FATIGUE.
YOU CAN SEE THAT THE DATA ON THIS MATERIAL AT THAT PRESSURE
IS COMING OUT. THIS IS A HIGH-STRENGTH
MATERIAL, 1045 MPA ULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH ON THAT.
SO, THERE’S A THOUGHT THAT PERHAPS THESE NEW STEALS WON’T
MAKE — NEW STEELS WON’T MAKE — MEET THE FATIGUE. PERHAPS AT A LOWER LEVEL.
IT IS NOT THAT DIFFERENT AT A NUMBER OF DIFFERENT TEST
FREQUENCIES. SORRY. IT ACTUALLY WORKS ON THAT PARTICULAR STEEL, BUT THE
ULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH IS BELOW THE 950 LIMIT.
IN MY MIND, WE STILL HAVE THE QUESTION OF, IF WE ARE GOING TO
DO 2600 PSI AS OUR UPPER PRESSURE, MAYBE IT MIGHT STILL
WORK, BUT THERE IS SOME DATA SAYING YOU BETTER LOOK AT THIS
TYPE OF MATERIAL PRETTY CLOSELY. OK. I’M GOING TO TALK REAL QUICK
ABOUT CRACK-RTIP MECHANICS — CRACK-TIP MECHANICS.
WE HAVE AN ALUMINUM CHAMBER WE DESIGNED THAT CAN DO THESE TESTS
AT A 1.7 MPA. WE CAN DO A MECHANICAL LOAD.
WE CAN HAVE HYDROGEN PRESSURE INSIDE.
WE CAN GO TO 500 PSI, WHICH IS 3.4 MSA. THIS WAS DONE AT RDON. WE DID SOME FATIGUE THERE.
YOU CAN SEE OUR TESTS IN ORANGE AND BLUE.
THE NORMAL HYDROGEN EFFECT AND FATIGUE ON THAT. SO, THE LAST THING ABOUT NEUTRON
MEASUREMENTS, YOU ACTUALLY MEASURE STRAIN, WHICH IS VERY
RARE. AS ENGINEERS, WE DO EVERYTHING
IN STRESS, BECAUSE WE CAN MEASURE STRESS. WE
DON’T NORMALLY GET TO MEASURE STRAIN, BUT IN THIS CASE WE
MEASURE STRAIN, THEN WE TAKE SOMETHING LIKE ABAQUS AND TAKE
THAT DATA AND PUT IT BACK SO WE CAN PUT IT IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF
STRESSES LIKE THIS. THE HYDROGEN STRESSES ARE HIGHER
THAN THE STRESSES IN AIR. WHAT THAT MEANS IS THAT THE
STRAINS WERE HIGHER IN HYDROGEN. HYDROGEN GETS INTO THE LATTICE,
EXPANDS THE LATTICE, AND INCREASES THE STRAIN.
THAT’S WHAT WE ARE WORRIED ABOUT.
WE HAVE TO USE K, THE STRESS INTENSITY FACTOR.
WE HAVE BEEN ARGUING THAT STRESS INTENSITY FACTOR IS A NICE THING
TO USE FOR LINEAR FRACTURE MECHANICS, BUT IT’S NOT A VERY
GOOD PARAMETER BECAUSE DIFFERENT STEELS GIVE YOU — YOU SHOULD BE
USING A DIFFERENT K SOLUTION FOR THOSE.
I’M GETTING DEEP INTO THE MECHANICS.
I SHOWED YOU THAT RED LINE. THAT IS LINEAR REGION, WHICH
MEANS I CAN USE K IN THAT REGION THERE.
YOU NOTICE THAT IT IS NOT CLOSE TO WHERE THE ANALYSTS’PREDICTION
OF THE PLASTIC — ANALYSTS’ PREDICTION OF THE PLASTIC IS.
YOU HAVE TO ADJUST YOUR K SOLUTION.
THE DATA IS SHOWING YOU THAT. WE ENGINEERS LOVE TO USE K BECAUSE IT IS VERY SIMPLE AND WE
HAVE BEEN USING IT FOR A LONG TIME WITH A LOT OF SUCCESS.
IF YOU WANT TO BE MORE ACCURATE — THE QUESTION IS WHETHER THEY CARE ABOUT THE SCIENCE OR BEING
MORE ACCURATE. IF YOU WANT TO BE MORE ACCURATE,
THEN YOU HAVE TO ADJUST THE K SOLUTION ON THAT.
WE USED THE ANDERSON K SOLUTION FOR BOTH PIPELINE AND PRESSURE
VESSELS BECAUSE IT IS MORE ACCURATE.
THE FLORIDA VESSEL CODE USES A DIFFERENT PROVISION BECAUSE IT
IS MUCH MORE CONSERVATIVE. BUT IT MAKES YOU HAVE TO USE A
LOT MORE MATERIAL. HERE ARE SOME MICROGRAPHS OF THE
ORDER STEEL, THE CURRENT — THE OLDER STEEL, THE CURRENTLY-USED
STEEL. THE NEWER STEEL WITH THE HIGHER
STRENGTH HAS A LOT MORE OF THAT IN IT ON THE LEFT.
WE HAVE SOME BRAND-NEW CYLINDERS FROM ITALY TO USE FOR THIS
TESTING. WE WILL ALSO GET SOME U.S.-BASED
— THE MICROSTRUCTURE WILL BE THE SAME WITH THE MATERIAL WE
USE IN THE U.S. THEY ARE IDENTICAL
MICROSTRUCTURES. OUR NEXT STEP, COMPLETE THE
STRAIN LIFE TEST IN MY VERSION — IN HEIGHTHYDROGEN. WE HAVE TO TALK ABOUT THE
DEFINITION OF IN-SERVICE. WHERE WE DEFINE THAT IN-SERVICE
CONDITION IS VERY IMPORTANT TO HOW THESE DIFFERENT TEST METHODS
MAP OUT TO HOW THEY COMPARE TO IN-SERVICE CONDITIONS.
THE ISSUE IS, IDEALLY YOU HAVE A TEST THAT WOULD TAKE 30 YEARS,
BECAUSE THAT’S HOW LONG IT TAKES FOR ONE OF THESE CYLINDERS TO
FAIL, BUT THAT WON’T SATISFY THE TEST. YOU HAVE TO BE ABLE TO
ACCELERATE IT.THE QUESTION IS , CAN WE MODEL IT?
THAT’S WHAT WE ARE TRYING TO DO HERE.
WE HAVE A CONCERN WHETHER THERE IS A PRESSURE EFFECT.
THAT GOES BACK TO THE SANDIA FATIGUE WORK.
WE WOULD LIKE TO EVENTUALLY DEVELOP A MODEL THAT WILL BE
USED FOR SELECTING STEEL INTENDED FOR HYDROGEN PRESSURE
VESSELS. THANK YOU. ANY QUESTIONS?>>ANDY? SORRY. I WAS JUST AREAS.
PRESSURE VESSELS — JUST CURIOUS.
PRESSURE VESSELS — I KNOW YOU ARE DOING PRESSURE TESTS.
HAS ANYONE STUDIED THE VARIATION OF PRESSURES OVER TIME WITH
THESE THINGS? IF THEY ARE BARRELED AT A HIGHER
LEVEL, OVER THE COURSE OF THE WEEK, DO THEY DROP DOWN AND GO
BACK UP AGAIN? DOES THAT CHANGE —
ANDY?:: IT’S PER THE IN-SERVICE CONDITION.>>I WAS WONDERING IF IT WAS
PRESSURE. ANDY: IF IT IS SITTING ON A
DOCK, THE PRESSURE WILL GO UP. AT NIGHT, IT WILL GO DOWN.
YOU ARE WORRIED ABOUT THOSE SORTS OF THINGS.
DOT TELLS ME THAT, ON AVERAGE, THE MOST — BASICALLY EMPTIED, IT GOES DOWN TO 100 PSI OR SO.
PEOPLE DON’T GENERALLY COMPLETELY EMPTY THEIR
CYLINDERS. IT GOES FROM YOUR HIGHEST
PRESSURE DOWN TO THAT. MOST OFTEN, YOU WOULD EXPECT IT
WOULD BE ONCE A WEEK YOU WOULD BE FILLING THAT.
MOST OF US HAVE OUR CYLINDERS FOR LONGER THAN THAT.
I RUN HYDROGEN TESTS AND I TYPICALLY HAVE HALF A DOZEN
CYLINDERS SITTING OUT THERE. ON AVERAGE, I PROBABLY HAVE
THOSE FOR A MONTH OR TWO BEFORE I EMPTY THEM.
THESE THINGS DON’T GET THE TONE OF — THEY’LL SEE A LOT OF THAT
ALL THE WAY UP, ALL THE WAY DOWN. YOU GET IT IN 2600 PSI.
I USE A COUPLE HUNDRED PSI. IT SITS THERE FOR ANOTHER WEEK
OR SO. THE ISSUE FOR DOT IS, CAN I HAVE
IT SITTING ON THE DOCK AND I FORGET ABOUT IT AND I GO OFF TO
ANOTHER PROJECT AND THE THING IS STILL SITTING THERE. THIS IS TO HAPPEN TO MY WORK IN
THE 1980’S AND WE HAD STUFF SITTING THERE FROM THE 1950’S.
IT HAS BEEN SITTING AROUND FOR A
LONG TIME, AND IT IS WAY PAST IT’S TIME TO GO AND GET
INSPECTED, AND I DON’T KNOW ANYTHING ABOUT THE CURRENT
STANDARDS CAN I JUST SEND THE THING ON OFF.
CHANCES ARE IT IS GOING TO BE CAUGHT BY THE PERSON WHO IS
FEELING IT IF I SEND THAT OFF. THAT IS ONE OF THE THINGS D.O.T.
WORRIES ABOUT. IF YOU GO WITH THE DESIGNS IN
THE CODES IN THE U.S. CODES FOR DESIGNING THESE THINGS CAN YOU
WILL NOT HAVE PROBLEMS. IT IS OUTSIDE OF THE NORM TYPE
THINGS THAT WE ARE WORRIED ABOUT. SOMEBODY COMES AND SCRATCHES THE
OUTSIDE AND DOESN’T SAY ANYTHING ABOUT IT, THOSE TYPES OF THINGS
ARE WHAT THE CONCERN IS.>>MORE QUESTIONS?>>YEAH, MY QUESTION IS ABOUT THE UPPER STRENGTH LIMIT.
I THINK YOU ASSUMED IT TO BE 1045. 950 THIS WHAT THE CODE IS.
I KNOW WHAT THE CODE IS, BUT THERE IS A HIGH-STRENGTH CODE —
I WAS WONDERING FOR YOUR TESTING
PURPOSES, ARE YOU USING 1045 IS THE UPPER LIMIT? ANDY: FOR THE TIME BEING, UNLESS
WE CAN GET SOME STEEL AT A HIGHER STRENGTH.>>11 950 — BELOW 950? ANDY: YEAH.>>THAT IS NOT CONSIDERED
HIGH-STRENGTH STABLE. ANDY: WE DON’T KNOW IF THE LOWER
ONE WILL PASS, BUT THAT IS AN EXCELLENT POINT.
I WILL THEN TRY TO GET MATERIAL THAT FITS INTO THE NEXT LEVEL
ALSO CAN BECAUSE I’M NOT DOING VERY MUCH TESTING.
IT IS EASY FOR ME TO PUT THAT INTO MY MODEL. GOOD POINT.
THANK YOU.>>IF ANYBODY HAS QUESTIONS, THEY CAN SPEAK TO HIM AFTER THE
SESSION. [APPLAUSE] MOVING ON FROM OUR NEXT SPEAKER IS MS. LAURA SULLIVAN.
MS. SULLIVAN IS A MECHANICAL ENGINEER WITH THE VOLPI NATIONAL
TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS CENTER. MS. SULLIVAN WORKS IN THE
STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS DIVISION AT THE VOLPE CENTER ON PROJECTS THAT ARE SPONSORED BY
VARIOUS ADMINISTRATIONS WITHIN FEDERAL RAILROAD, FEDERAL MOTOR
CARRIER, AND TRANSPORT CANDIDATE.
MS. SULLIVAN WILL BE TALKING TO US TODAY ABOUT ENFORCEMENT MATERIALS THAT ARE USED FOR
MOTOR VEHICLES. LAURA: HI THERE. I CAN’T ACTUALLY SEE MY OWN
PRESENTATION. SO I AM HERE REPRESENTING THE VOLPE CENTER.
WE ARE DOING RESEARCH WITH SOMEONE WHOSE NAME YOU SHOULD
ALL RECOGNIZE AFTER TODAY. I PLAN ON GIVING YOU A LITTLE
OVERVIEW ON THE PACKAGE AND WE ARE TALKING ABOUT RIGHT NOW AND
MATERIALS WE ARE WORKING WITH COMMEND THAT I WILL PRESENT YOU
THE PATH WE PLAN ON TAKING FOR OUR RESEARCH, AND GIVING YOU A
SUMMARY OF WHAT WE HAVE IT ALREADY ACCOMPLISHED AND WHERE
WE ARE HEADING, AND I LOOK FORWARD TO YOUR INPUT.
WE ARE TALKING ABOUT MOTOR VEHICLES, REGULATING THE TESTING
AND CONSTRUCTION OF THESE GUYS. THEY ARE CURRENTLY ONLY
REGULATED AS METALLIC TEXT — METALLICA TANKS, — M ETALLIC TANKS.
THEY HAVE TRIED TO DESIGN THESE OUT OF FIBER REINFORCED POLYMERS
. THE PROBLEM IS THAT THOSE MATERIALS ARE NOT INCLUDED IN
EXISTING REGULATIONS. WHAT HAPPENS IS THAT EVERY
MANUFACTURER WHO WANTS TO BUILD THESE NEEDS TO APPLY FOR A
SPECIAL PERMIT, INDEPENDENTLY REVIEW EACH ONE OF THESE ON ITS
OWN MERITS. THERE ARE CURRENTLY SIX MANUFACTURERS IN THE U.S. AND
CANADA CONSTRUCTING THESE, AND THEY ARE RUNNING AROUND ON THE
HIGHWAYS NEXT YEAR. ONE OF THE HURDLES WE ARE
LOOKING AT IS THAT EACH ONE OF THESE SOCIAL PERMITS IS
ORGANIZED A LITTLE BIT DIFFERENTLY.
THESE HAVE BEEN ISSUED OVER TIME .
EVERYBODY — THE ONUS IS ON THE MANUFACTURER TO SAY THAT THIS IS
EQUIVALENTLY SAFE TO THIS IS SAFE, THIS IS OUT WE ARE GOING TO DO IT, AND SOME OF THOSE ARE
IN LINE WITH CANADIAN REGULATIONS OR EUROPEAN
REGULATIONS, WHICH ARE DIFFERENT FROM EACH OTHER.
IT IS THE SWARM OF EVERYBODY IS INDEPENDENTLY TRYING TO
DEMONSTRATE THEY HAVE A SAFE, BUT THIS LEAVES US IN A LITTLE
BIT OF A POSITION WHERE THERE IS REALLY NO ONE GOOD MEASURE.
ONE OF THE ISSUES OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL IS THAT IT IS NOT METAL, WHICH IS GREAT.
IT’S GREAT BECAUSE IT IS A LOWER
DENSITY, IT CAN BE LIGHTER YOU CAN DESIGN IT TO BE SPECIFIC TO
WHAT YOUR APPLICATION IS COMPLETE IS CORROSION-RESISTANT ,
THE THERMAL PROPERTIES ARE GOING TO BE DIFFERENT FROM METAL.
AND IT IS GOING TO BE A GREAT INSULATOR.
IN THE EVENT YOU ARE OPERATING SOME PLACE HOT OR SOMEPLACE
CALLEDCOLD. BUT IT IS NOT UNIVERSALLY
FANTASTIC MATERIAL. SOME OF THE CONCERNS WE HAVE IS
NOW WE’RE TALKING ABOUT THE BACK
OF THE TRAILER, RUNNING AROUND ON THE HIGHWAYS.
WHAT HAPPENED IF WERE IN AN ACCIDENT OR INCIDENT INVOLVING
FIRE? THOSE OF THE CONSIDERATIONS WE
HAVE. WE ARE NOT TALKING ABOUT MEDALS
WITH TALKING ABOUT MATERIAL THAT IS HIGHLY SPECIFIC. NOT ONLY ARE WE DEALING WITH
MANUFACTURERS WHO ARE INDEPENDENTLY DEMONSTRATING TO
SOME LEVEL OF SAFETY, BUT THERE ARE ALL DESIGNING SOMETHING
SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT. WHETHER IT IS CLASS FIBER OR CARBON FIBER WHAT TYPES OF
POLYMERS YOU ARE USING TO PUT THEM TOGETHER, WHETHER OR NOT
YOU CHANGE YOUR CERTIFICATION IF
YOU HAVE SOMETHING VERY CONTROLLED, WHERE THE DIRECTIONS
OF YOUR FIBERS ARE, YOU ARE NOT GOING TO PRE-TENSION YOUR
FIBERS — ALL OF THESE ARE UNIQUE TO WHOEVER IS DESIGNING.
IN ADDITION TO JUST THE MATERIAL PROPERTIES FROM THE WAY THAT
THESE THINGS ARE BEING BUILT, IN SOME CASES YOU’RE TALKING ABOUT
A SINGLE-WALL LAYER OF SRP. IN SOME CASES IT IS A SANDWICH
STRUCTURE WITH ANY TYPE OF MATERIAL IN BETWEEN.
WE ARE TALKING ABOUT A LARGE RANGE OF EXISTING MATERIALS, AND
WE ARE TRYING TO FIGURE OUT A WAY TO CHARACTERIZE THESE SO
THAT WE HAVE A WAY OF EVALUATING HOW APPROPRIATE THEY ARE FOR
USE. ESSENTIALLY THAT IS THE
OBJECTIVE OF THIS WORK, TO LOOK AT THE WAYS WE CAN CONTEST
SAMPLES AND DEVELOP MODELS TO UNDERSTAND BETTER HOW THE
MATERIAL BEHAVES ON THE LARGE-SCALE, AND HOW THESE TANKS
MAY ULTIMATELY PERFORM WITH EXISTING STANDARDS THAT ARE OUT
THERE. WE ARE LOOKING TO PROVIDE SORT OF A THEORETICAL RESEARCH TO HOW
THE IDEALIZED TANK WOULD BE ABLE
TO MEET EXISTING REQUIREMENTS FOR METAL TANKS.
FIRST DECIDED THIS IS PROCURING — [INDISCERNIBLE] WE REACHED OUT TO MANUFACTURERS,
WE WANTED TO KNOW WHAT THEY WERE USING TO BUILD TANKS TO HOW THEY
WERE BUILDING THEM, WHAT THEY WERE USING, AND WE WANTED TO
KNOW WHAT THEY ARE DOING TO DEMONSTRATE TO THEIR
SATISFACTION THAT THESE TANKS ARE SAFE.
HOW ARE YOU CHARACTERIZING THE MATERIAL?
ARE YOU TESTING, READING RESEARCH, CALCULATING THINGS,
MODELING? WHAT ARE YOU DOING? THE NEXT STEP OF THIS WOULD BE
DETERMINING FOR OURSELVES AFTER WE HAVE OBTAINED SAMPLES AND
TRYING TO GET A RANGE OF THEM IS
TO PERFORM SOME OF THESE TESTS OURSELVES AND CHARACTERIZING
MATERIALS. WE LOOK INTO MULTIPLE SOURCES TO WALK DOWN THE SAME PATH OR
EMULATE WHEN A MANUFACTURER MIGHT DO.
WE ARE LOOKING AT EXISTING CMTV REQUIREMENTS FOR METAL TANKS.
WE ARE LOOKING AT PRESSURE VESSEL CODE SECTION EIGHT AND
SECTION 10. WE’RE LOOKING AT THE EXISTING CANADIAN REGULATIONS AND
EXISTING REGULATIONS IN ADR. AND WE ARE AT THE SPECIAL
PERMITS. WHAT WERE PEOPLE DOING IN ORDER
TO SHOW THAT IT WAS COMPLIANT? WE THEN WANT TO DETERMINE WHICH VALUES WE WANT TO USE TO PROVIDE
THE BEST RESULTS THAT WILL ALLOW
US TO VALIDATE THE MODEL WE HAVE ESTABLISHED.
SO THAT IS THE NEXT TASK TO DEVELOP MEDALS BOTH FOR STIMULANT EXAMPLE TESTS AND HOW
THOSE MAY CHANGE COMMAND MODELS FOR HOW THEY PERFORM UNDER
PRESSURE. YOU MAY ASK YOURSELF, WHY ARE YOU MODELING THE COUPON SAMPLE.
THE DIFFERENT CHALLENGES FOR MANUFACTURERS TO TEST THEIR OWN
MATERIAL — IN A PERFECT WORLD, OR IN ANOTHER WORLD, YOU WOULD
ORDER YOUR STEEL OR ALUMINUM AND YOU WOULD CUT OUT A FLAT AND IT WOULD DO GREAT.
HOW DO YOU TAKE THAT SAMPLE OFF OF SOMETHING AND GET BOTH
DIRECTIONS OF PROPERTIES? IS IT REALISTIC TO REQUIRE A MANUFACTURER TO BE ABLE TO DO
THAT? DO YOU SAY, YESTERDAY YOU HAVE
TO AFFECT BLOOD SAMPLES TO DETERMINE THESE PROPERTIES —
FLAT SAMPLES TO DETERMINE THESE PROPERTIES?
WHETHER OR NOT THAT WOULD SORT OF TRICKLE-DOWN OR UP INTO THE LARGER SCALE MODEL —
[INDISCERNIBLE] THE NEXT STEP IS TO DEVELOP THE MODEL. WE HAVE SPOKEN TO OTHER
MANUFACTURERS ABOUT GETTING MATERIAL FOR THEM AND ASK THEM
IF THEY WOULD BE WILLING TO PROVIDE US WITH TANKS.
ULTIMATELY, WHAT WE WANT TO DO IS BUILD SOMETHING THAT IS NOT
SPECIFIC TO ANYONE DESIGN BUT GENERALIZE.
WE WOULD HAVE TO MAKE SOME ASSUMPTIONS BASED OFF OF HOW
THESE ARE TYPICALLY OPERATING, WHAT TYPES OF PRESSURES WE’RE
TALKING ABOUT, WHAT CAPACITIES CAN LOOK AT THOSE TRADE-OFFS IN
ORDER TO DESIGN SOMETHING THAT WOULD BE REPRESENTATIVE WITHOUT BEING SPECIFIC.
THE NEXT WANT TO LOOK AT WOULD BE ESSENTIALLY TAKING THIS IDEALIZED MODEL AND PUTTING IT
THROUGH ITS PACES. WE WOULD WANT TO LOOK AT — WE WOULD HAVE TO DEVELOP EXACTLY
WHAT WE ARE LOOKING AT. YOU KNOW WHERE WE ARE GOING.
WE LOOK AT WHAT THE EXISTING REQUIREMENTS ARE AND HOW WELL
THESE PERFORM WITH WHETHER OR NOT IT WOULD BE MORE SUSCEPTIBLE
— IT IS GOOD TO BE A LITTLE BIT DIFFERENT.
YOU WANT TO LOOK AT THE THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF THESE.
YOU ARE TALKING ABOUT THE STRUCTURE — PARTS OF IT MAY
EXPAND DIFFERENTLY — SOMETHING MADE OUT OF A SIMILAR METAL , AND
THEN THE FATIGUE PERFORMANCE IS A NUMBER THING — IS ANOTHER
THING. THOSE ARE PRETTY MUCH WHAT WE
ARE LOOKING AT IN TERMS OF WHAT WE WOULD GET FROM A FULL-SCALE
MODEL. AND THEN WHAT WE FIND — WE WILL
PROVIDE FEEDBACK ON WHAT TYPES OF TESTS WITH IT, THE RESULTS,
THE MATERIAL PROPERTIES THAT WE ARE GOING TO PROVIDE AN OVERVIEW
OF THE EXISTING MANUFACTURERS ARE DOING UNDER THEIR OWN
PRACTICES, AND HOW WE DEVELOP THE MODEL AND THE RESULTS TO
MAKE SURE WE ARE NOT HEADING IN THE WRONG DIRECTION. SO — NO, KEEP GOING.
THIS IS THE TENTATIVE PROJECT SCHEDULE WE HAVE RIGHT NOW.
A LOT OF THIS IS ONGOING AND IN THE FUTURE.
NOT A LOT OF THIS IS COMPLETED. WHERE ARE WE RIGHT NOW?
WE ARE IN THE PROCESS OF OBTAINING MATERIALS FOR
MANUFACTURERS AND FINDING OUT WHAT THEY ARE DOING.
WE ARE WHITTLING DOWN HOW MANY TESTS WE WANT TO RUN.
IT IS VERY DIFFICULT TO KNOW THE TESTS ON SOMETHING WHERE YOU WANT TO LEARN EVERY THING YOU
CAN ABOUT SOMETHING, BUT EACH THING NEEDS TO BE DONE IN FOUR
DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS. THAT GETS UNWIELDY VERY QUICKLY.
RIGHT NOW WE LOOKING AT SAMPLES FOR TWO DIFFERENT WAYS OF LAYING
OUT YOUR MATERIALS, WHETHER OR NOT YOUR PRE-TENSION — [INDISCERNIBLE]
FOR WHETHER A NOT YOU ARE LAYING IT OUT. WE WANT TO LOOK AT WHAT
MATERIALS YOU ARE USING, HOW THOSE ARE GOING TO PLAY INTO THE
MODEL. AND THEN WE HAVE DEVELOPED A
TEST MATRIX LOOKING AT STRENGTH AND ELASTICITY AND IMPACT AND
THERMAL PROPERTIES. DID I RUSH? OK. EXCELLENT.
ANY QUESTIONS?>>THANK YOU, LAURA.
OK, SEVERAL ISSUES WITH REGARDS TO — THE PROJECT IS A RESEARCH
PROJECT HAS A LOT OF MERIT. I THINK THE PROBLEM WITH
THE WHOLE PROCESS IS ALL OF THEM
ARE OPERATING ON SPECIAL PERMITS . THE STANDARD BY LAW IS THAT IT
IS COMPARABLE TO THE LEVEL OF SAFETY TO WHAT THE REGULATION
REQUIRES. IT DOESN’T MATTER HOW YOU GO
ABOUT IT. THAT IS WHY YOU HAVE THE
HONEYCOMB THAT IS WHY YOU HAVE ALL THE REST OF THESE THINGS.
IT IS A MAJOR CONCERN. TRYING TO CREATE A STANDARD THAT
WOULD BE SUBSTITUTABLE FOR STEEL IS A GOAL THAT I SUPPORT
BIG-TIME. I DON’T KNOW THAT YOU WOULD BE
ABLE TO DO IT. BUT I STILL SAY ABOUT END YOU
WILL NOT BE ABLE TO PREVENT A MANUFACTURER FROM COMING IN
SAYING, “I HAVE MY OWN WAY OF DOING THIS, AND I WILL DO A
COMPARABLE LEVEL.” YOU COULD SPARE — DO YOU CONCUR
WITH THAT CONCEPT LAURA: I DON’T THINK WE WILL
MOVE THE OPTION FOR THE SPECIAL PERMITS.>>THE SECOND PART IS FROM THE
PRACTICAL SIDE THESE THINGS HAVE
BEEN IN SERVICE FOR 40 YEARS, OR APPROXIMATELY 40 YEARS.
FROM THE EARLY 1980’S. I THINK WHAT THE CRASH DATA HAS SHOWN US IN THE 5800.1 DATA HAS
SHOWN IS CLEARLY IS RELEASES FROM THESE PARTICULAR VESSELS IS
GENERALLY MAYBE 85% OF THE CASE ,
THE DIRECT RESULT FROM THE USERS IMPROPERLY INCOMPATIBLE MATERIAL
ON THE INSIDE. ONCE IT GETS THE LAND — I IT GETS INTO THE MATERIAL,
AND ONCE HE GETS INTO THE MATERIAL, IT NEEDS ITS WAY
THROUGH. MY CONCERN FROM A STRUCTURAL
STANDPOINT IS I AM UNAWARE OF STRUCTURAL FAILURES OF THE
VESSELS ITSELF. I AM CONCERNED ABOUT STRUCTURAL
FAILURES OF THE LINING, WHATEVER
WE WANT TO CALL IT. AND I WOULD WONDER WHETHER OR
NOT WE SHOULD BE LOOKING AT WHAT IS CAUSING THE INCIDENTS MORE
THAN THE VESSEL ITSELF. I UNDERSTAND WHAT WE ARE TRYING
TO DO. BUT MY CONCERN IS THAT IF WE ARE
TALKING ABOUT PRODUCT RETENTION DURING TRANSPORTATION, THE DATA
CLEARLY SHOWS THE ISSUE IS WITH THE LINING MATERIAL AND, MORE
IMPORTANTLY, WITH THE INCOME ELIGIBILITY OF TEMPERATURE, THIS
INCOMPATIBILITY OF — THE INCOMPATIBILITY OF
TEMPERATURE, STRENGTH, ETC. HOW DO WE GO ABOUT MAKING SURE
THAT THE PEOPLE USE IT — HOW DO
WE MAKE SURE THAT THEY CAN DO IT?
I SUPPORT WHAT YOU ARE DOING, BUT I THINK THE TASK, WITHOUT
GETTING INTO THE ISSUE OF THE CURVATURE VS. THE STRAIGHT —
YOU KNOW AS I DO THAT THAT WILL BE ONE HELL OF A BATTLE, BECAUSE
THE CURVE HAS GIVEN STRENGTH INTEGRITY ON THE VESSEL THEN
WHEN YOU TAKE IT OFF AND USE IT AS A COUPON.
YOU HAVE TO CALCULATE THAT THE MEN THAT WILL BE AN ARGUMENT.
LAURA: THAT IS PART OF WHAT WE’RE DOING.
TO ADDRESS YOUR PREVIOUS CONCERN, WHATEVER YOU WANT TO
CALL IT, IT SHOULD NOT BE PROVIDED THE UNDER STRUCTURE.
IT SHOULD BE PROTECTING YOUR STRUCTURE FROM THE CORROSIVE
MATERIAL. THAT IS SOMETHING THAT IS CLOSER
TO YOUR RESIN SELECTION. I AGREE WITH YOU THAT IT IS
DIFFICULT AS A MANUFACTURER TO ENSURE THAT YOUREND-USER IS NOT PUTTING SOMETHING IN THE TANK.
THIS IS NOT UNIQUE TO ITSELF THE TEXT. THIS IS TO ALL TANKS THAT
DESPITE BEST EFFORTS, PEOPLE WILL PUT IN MATERIALS THAT ARE
INCOMPATIBLE WITH THE TANK ITSELF.
THAT IS SOMETHING YOU HAVE TO REGULATE DOWN THE LINE IN TERMS
OF WHO IS PUTTING ONE IN WHICH TANK.
WE ARE VIEWING THIS LARGELY FROM THE STRUCTURAL STANDPOINT, AND
HOW YOU CAN MAINTAIN MANY OF THE
EXISTING REGULATIONS, AND INDEED, THE SPECIAL PERMITS
REQUIRE THAT YOU MEET MOST OF THE EXISTING REGULATIONS WITH
THE EXCEPTION OF THE MATERIALS. THAT IS WHY WE ARE FOCUSED ON
STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES COME BECAUSE IT IS THE ONLY THING
THAT YOU CANNOT PULL FROM THE EXISTING REGULATIONS. [APPLAUSE]>>IF I COULD MAKE ONE ANNOUNCEMENT, THE NEXT SPEAKER
COMING UP — I SAID THIS IS A PUBLIC MEETING, AND EVERYTHING
IS FAIR GAME, BUT WE HAVE SOME PRELIMINARY DATA THAT IS GOING
TO BE PRESENTED WITH THE NEXT SPEAKER.
WE WOULD ASK YOU TO PLEASE HOLD PHOTOGRAPHY.
WE WILL MAKE THESE SLIDES AVAILABLE ONLINE EVENTUALLY, BUT
BECAUSE IT IS NOT PUBLISHED DATA YET WE ARE NOT COMFORTABLE WITH
BROADCASTING IT TOO MUCH. THANK YOU.>>NEXT SPEAKER IS DR. AFSANEH RABIEI. DR. RABIEI IS A PROFESSOR IN THE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND IT WAS THIS ENGINEERING AT NORTH
CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY, AND SHE IS THE DIRECTOR OF THE
RESEARCH LABORATORY AT THE UNIVERSITY.
DR. RABIEI’S RESEARCH ENCOMPASSES THE PUBLICATION AND
FAILURE ANALYSIS OF ADVANCED MATERIALS WHICH INCLUDES
METALLIC FORMS, COMPOSITES, AND OTHERS. DR. RABIEI
WILL TALK TO US ABOUT COMPOSITE METAL FORMS AVAILABLE
FOR IMPACT MITIGATION. AFSANEH: THANK YOU FOR THE INTRODUCTION.
GOOD AFTERNOON, EVERYBODY. PLEASURE TO SPEAK TODAY ABOUT COMPARATIVE METAL FORMS AND THE
PROPERTIES AND PERFORMANCE AND THEIR VALUES AND CONDITIONS.
I WOULD LIKE TO ACKNOWLEDGE THE OFFICE OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TO
SUPPORT OUR PROJECT AND ALSO PUT
TOGETHER THIS EVENT FOR US TO GET TOGETHER AND TALK TO.>>CAN YOU PUT THE SLIDES ON? AFSANEH: TALK ABOUT THE WEATHER
— IS IT STILL RAINING OUTSIDE? [LAUGHTER] OK, THERE WE GO. OK, PERFECT.
I’M GOING TO — BEFORE I START, THE LOGO IS THE LABORATORY OF
ADVANCED MATERIALS RESEARCH LAB , AND SCALE UP IN MY GROUP AT NC
STATE. THE TITLE OF THE PROJECT WE HAVE
FUNDED OF THE OFFICE OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY IS
COMPOSITE METAL FOAMS FOR RAILROAD TANK CARS.
ON THE LEFT-HAND SIDE OF THIS LIGHT IS A BUNCH OF COMPOSITE
METAL SAMPLES THAT START FROM THE VERY LAST ON THE RIGHT AND
GOES TO THE NEXT ROW IS EXACTING BACK-AND-FORTH TO COMPRESS ALL
THE WAY DOWN. THAT SHOWS THE KIND OF COMPOSITE
METAL FORMS CAN PROGRESS. — COMPRESS.
FIRST OFF, WITH MY TEACHING HAT ON, AEROSPACE ENGINEERING
IS LEARNING FROM NATURE. AS ENGINEERS, WE TRIED TO MIMIC
THE STRICTURES THAT WE DESIGN FOR BETTER OR SLOWER RATE AND
BETTER PERFORMANCE. IT IS A PROOROUS MATERIAL. ALL THE STRUCTURES IN THE BODY TREE LEAVES, EVERYTHING — IF
YOU LOOK CAREFULLY IN THE STRUCTURE. AROUND THE GLOBE, IT PROTECTS US
AGAINST HEAT AND RADIATION. IT CAN PROVIDE A LOT OF
CAPABILITIES. THAT IS HOW ENGINEERING MINDS
START LOOKING INTO HOW WE CARRY EGGS, WE CARRY BEVERAGES IN
ANOTHER TYPE OF POROUS MATERIAL WITH AIR INSIDE THAT PROTECTS US
AGAINST HIGH TEMPERATURES. ALSO, WE CARRY GLASS, USING THE AIR INSIDE WE CAN CARRY ALL OF THESE DIFFERENT STRUCTURES AND
FRAGILE, HIGH TEMPERATURE, AND SO FORTH.
HOW WE ARE USING THIS IN OUR RESEARCH IS WE CREATED A NEW CLASS OF MATERIAL CALLED
COMPOSITE METAL FORMS. IT IS A COMPOSITE.
THE MATERIAL IS BASICALLY THE STRUCTURE OF BUBBLEWRAP, BUT IT
IS HEAVY-DUTY BUBBLEWRAP. WE HAD THE SAME STRUCTURE, WITH
THE SAME CONCEPT OF CUSHIONABILITY.
WE HAVE PROOF THAT THE MATERIAL HAS ENERGY ABSORPTION MAGNITUDES
HIGHER COMPARED TO THE MATERIAL IT IS MADE OF. 60, 60 5%.
WE CAN MAKE IT OUT OF A TYPE OF ALLOYS.
WE HAVE DONE EXPERIMENTS, DIFFERENT PERFORMANCES OF THE
MATERIAL FROM RADIATION SHIELDING TO MECHANICAL TESTING.
AS WELL AS HEAT, ISOLATION, TESTING, AND LAST. IT STARTED WITH MIGHT WORK FROM
THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION BACK IN 2003, AND CONTINUES TO A
DIFFERENT FUNDING AGENCY — NASA , NORTH CAROLINA STATE GRANT,
DOE, DOD, SO FORTH AND SO ON. THIS PICTURE, YOU SEE TWO PIECES . THE MATERIAL IS MADE OF A BUNCH
OF HOLLOW SPHERES ON THE METALLIC MATRIX AROUND IT.
THE HOLLOW SPHERES AND METALLIC MATRIX CAN BE MADE OF SIMILAR
MATERIAL. OR IT CAN BE TWO DIFFERENT
MATERIALS. THIS MATERIAL IS, AS YOU CAN SEE
— [INDISCERNIBLE] THE SAME MATERIAL HERE. THIS IS LOADING AND AS WE CAN
SEE, IT SHOWS AN 80% COMPRESSION .
CAN WE DO IT ONE MORE TIME? THERE YOU GO.
THIS IS THE CONCEPT IN 2005. YES COME , AND I WAS SO MOTIVATED TO
GO OUT AND TALK WITH DIFFERENT AGENCIES AND SAY, THIS IS GREAT , YOU CAN USE IT FOR PROTECTION
AGAINST ROADSIDE BOMBS, CAR ACCIDENTS, AND SO FORTH.
AND YOU ARE YOUNG AND PEOPLE LOOK AT THIS AND GO, UH-HUH. THE NEW GO FARTHER AND FARTHER
AND FARTHER AND GO — I WOULD REMEMBER, I WENT TO THE ARMY AND
I GOT SOME AWARD FROM THE INNOVATION FUND, AND I USED IT
TO BUILD SOME PANELS. I WAS SO EXCITED AND I WENT TO
THE ARMY, AND — [INDISCERNIBLE]
YES, I CAN BE DONE WITH THIS. PEOPLE TENDED TO STAY AWAY FROM
THE COMFORT ZONE THAT THEY HAVE BEEN — YOU, UP WITH A NEW CONCEPT.
I’M HOPING THAT EVERYBODY LISTENING, YOU HAVE POWER IN
DOING SOMETHING TO COME ON BOARD — WE BELIEVE IN YOU, LET’S DO
SOMETHING DIFFERENT. THAT IS WHERE WE ARE RIGHT NOW.
THIS IS A PROJECT FUNDED BY TRV 2012.
THAT IS A SMALL SAMPLE, AND THE HIGH-SPEED IMPACT.
THIS IS ABOUT 200- TO 360-MILE PER HOUR IMPACT.
IT SHOWS HOW IT BASICALLY SQUEEZES DOWN. ISTHAT IS — IF IT IS RECOVERABLE
— IT FEELS LIKE IT IS RECOVERABLE, BUT IT IS NOT
RECOVERABLE. WE FIGURE THAT WHEN YOU PUT THIS
MATERIAL UNDER LOADING, YOU GET EXTRA STRENGTH.
IT IS LIKE A CAN — YOU TRY TO PRESS IT COME IT RESISTS MORE.
BEFORE THE AIR TRIES TO FIND ITS
WAY OUT OF — IT WILL — [INDISCERNIBLE]
THAT IS WHY YOU GAIN ADDITIONAL STRENGTH.
THAT IS WHAT THE SLIDES ARE SHOWING.
FOR THE DOWN THE ROAD, WE HAVE FUNDING FROM THE JOINT AIRCRAFT
SURVIVABILITY PROGRAM AT NC STATE UNIVERSITY TO TEST THE
PANELS I GUESS — AGAINST DIFFERENT TYPES OF BALLISTICS.
SOME DATA ARE ALREADY IN THE PUBLIC DOMAIN, AND I’M GOING TO
SHARE THOSE WITH YOU. I HAVE TO EXCUSE MYSELF, BUT I’M
TELLING YOU THAT THIS IS A SAMPLE IS REPORTED AGAINST THE VELOCITY OF 100 METERS.
THIS IS THE VELOCITY — I CAN ACTUALLY STOP FIVE DIFFERENT
BULLETS IN 15-FOOT PANEL. — IN ONE FIVE-FOOT PANEL.
THE BACK OF THE PANEL SHOWS FLAT.
NO INDICATION, OR VERY MINIMAL INDICATION — NO INDENTATION , OR VERY MINIMAL INDENTATION. IT IS REALLY NOT TOO BIG OF A
DEAL. THIS IS 7.62 AP BULLET THAT IS HITTING THE PANEL.
IT IS NOT SHOWING — YOU CAN ALWAYS GOOGLE MY NAME.
OVER A MILLION HITS IF YOU CAN FIND IT.>>YOU MIGHT NEED TO GO TO THE
INTERNET FOR YOUR VIDEO. AFSANEH: IF YOU DON’T HAVE IT,
THAT’S OK. WE CAN CONTINUE. LET’S MOVE ON. THE IMPORTANT THING I WANTED TO
THINK ABOUT IS THE CONCEPT, OR THE MECHANISM OF THAT, IS BY
SQUEEZING THOSE BUBBLES AND OBSERVING THE ENERGY.
— ABSORBING THAT ENERGY. THESE ARE ACTUALLY FRAGMENTS
COMING FROM A BULLET THAT IS ACTUALLY EXPLODING, AND THE FRAGMENTS ARE ARRIVING AT 5000
FEET PER SECOND. YOU SEE A LOT OF THE FRAGMENTS
ARE SHOWN IN THAT PICTURE. THIS IS JUST 5/8 OF AN INCH COMPOSITE. IT IS PURE COMPOSITE.
THIS SHOWS — [INDISCERNIBLE] THIS SHOWS DIFFERENT PANELS THAT
HAVE BEEN EXPOSED TO THE BLAST TESTING. THIS SHOWS THE PENETRATION.
A FEW MILLIMETERS OF COMPOSITE METALS WITHOUT ANYTHING IN THE
BACK OR FRONT. FRAGMENTS UP TO — AREA OF THE FRAGMENTS, 100 MILLIMETERS
SQUARES. MRS. 5000-SQUARE-FOOT — THIS IS
5000-SQUARE-FOOT VELOCITY. WE ALSO DID SOME SIMULATION
MODELING AND COMPARED THE SAME RATE OF ALUMINUM COMPARED TO
COMPOSITE METAL FOR. THING I NEEDED TO REMIND YOU THAT THE COMPOSITE METAL FORM,
THE STEEL PRESIDENCY OF ALUMINUM.
THE PANEL ON THE RIGHT HAND SIDE IS ALUMINUM.
LEFT HAND SIDE, AND WAS IT. YOU CAN SEE THE DAMAGE COMING
FROM THE SAME TYPE AND THE COMPOSITE FORM IS MUCH LESS.
LEFT HAND SIDE OF THE PICTURE, YOU SEE THE CROSS-SECTION AND MUCH MORE DAMAGE ON ALUMINUM.
THIS IS DUE TO THE FACT THAT SOME COMPOSITE FORMS HAVE
BUBBLES SQUEEZING AND OBSERVING THE ENERGY. WHEN YOU COMPARE THE FRAGMENTS, SHOWING THE ALUMINUM, AND THE
BOTTOM ONE SHOWS THE COMPOSITE FORM.
IT TAKES MUCH MORE TIME FOR THE COMPOSITE — FOUR ALUMINUM TO
START THE FRAGMENT, AND IT IS MORE STRESS.
THIS IS ALUMINUM, COMPOSITE FORM . 180 MICROSECONDS. AND THIS IS ALUMINUM AGAIN.
THIS IS COMPOSITE FORM. DISTRIBUTED IN THE PANEL DUE TO THE BLAST WEIGHT AND THE IMPACT
OF THE GLASS FRAGMENTS. A LOT MORE TO DISCUSS , BUT IT IS
CONFIDENTIAL, AND I’M GOING TO STOP.
ONE THING I WILL ALSO MENTION — WE TALK ABOUT THE BENEFIT OF
AIR . WE TAKE IT FOR GRANTED.
WE HAVE AIR AROUND THE GLOBE AND THAT HELPS WITH RADIATION
PROTECTION. WE HAVE DONE SOME X-RAYS AND
NEUTRONS AND IT SHOWED THE MATERIALS ARE PERFORMING PRETTY
WELL COMPARED TO SIMILAR DENSITY LIKE ALUMINUM.
EVEN COMPARING THIS WITH LEAD, IT SHOWED VERY GOOD PERFORMANCE
. WE STILL HAVE MORE WORK TO DO. ALUMINUM A356, THE RED ONE SHOWS LEAD, THE OTHERS, BLUE AND
GREEN, SHOW COMPOSITE METAL FORMS.
WE CAN ACTUALLY SOLVE RADIATION SHIELDING WITH A LITTLE MORE
RESEARCH IN THAT CATEGORY. ALSO, WE HAVE SOME MODELING, STARTING FROM EXPERIMENTAL
PROCEDURES, GOING TO THE MODEL ING, AND THROUGH THAT WE ALSO
HAVE CONDUCTED — FOR THIS PROJECT. ACCORDING TO 49CFR 179, APPENDIX
B, WE HAVE BEEN THREE PNAELS FOR 100 MINUTES —
[INDISCERNIBLE] THE COMPOSITE CAN WE END UP HAVING A DENSITY OF ALMOST
HAVING 500 DEGREES. IF YOU LOOK AT THIS, THE MEASURE
, THE PANELS ARE 12 BY 12 INCHES.
THE INITIAL TEMPERATURE — THIS IS THE CALIBRATION STUDY.
AND THEN THIS IS THE FIRMNESS GOING TO 427. OUR SAMPLES ON THE CEILING , NINE
ATTACHED TO THE BACK ACCORDING TO THE STANDARDS.
IT SHOWS THAT WHILE THE TEMPERATURE OF THE FURNACE AT THE BOTTOM, STAYING AT 827, THE
TEMPERATURE OF EITHER ONE OF THOSE DID NOT EXCEED 379. HERE WE ARE TALKING ABOUT A
STRUCTURE C, THIS IS METAL, AND MAINTAINING 500 DEGREES, UP TO 100 MINUTES, IS WHAT WE ARE
PROUD OLD. ACCORDING TO THE STANDARDS, IT SHOWS HOW THE SETUP IS, AND ON
THE RIGHT-HAND SIDE — ON THE LEFT-HAND SIDE, YOU SEE THE
SAMPLE AFTER TESTING. MUCH DAMAGE TO THE SIMPLE.
A LITTLE DISCOLORATION ON THE SERVICE AND THAT IS ABOUT IT.
THIS IS THE SECOND POLE FIRE TEST WITH THE SAME RESULTS. 351 COMMEND THE FURNACE
TEMPERATURE AGAIN WAS 827. THE SAME FOR THE THIRD SAMPLE.
RESEARCH WAS DONE AT THE INSTITUTE.
THANKS TO COLLECT THEIR, ESPECIALLY JAMIE MCDONALD, WHO
DID THE TESTS FOR US. WHAT IS THE UPCOMING?
WE ARE GOING TO CONTINUE THE WORK — THESE SAMPLES TO RUN TESTS.
WE’RE GOING TO MAKE SANDWICH PANELS OF DIFFERENT THICKNESSES
OF COMPOSITE METALS. WE TALKED ABOUT BEING ABOUT 732-INCH — 7/32 INCH OF FACE SHEET THICKNESS.
THIS WOULD BE LOADED, AND WE CONTINUE DOING THAT —
[INDISCERNIBLE] IT IS THE VERY EARLY STAGE OF WELDING, AND WE ARE TRYING TO
FIGURE OUT THE BEST WAY OF WELDING THE PANELS IT IS VERY
EARLY. IN SUMMARY, THE COMBINATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT, EXTRAORDINARY
ENERGY ABSORPTION, RADIATION SHIELDING, HEAT
ISOLATION CAN BE USED IN MANY STRUCTURES APPLICATIONS FULL
STOP WE NEED TO BELIEVE IN IT, AND THE MATERIALS PROVED TO BE GAME CHANGING MATERIALS FOR THE
NEXT GENERATION OF PROTECTION. I ALWAYS SAID THAT IF YOU WANT
TO KILL SOMEBODY WITH MY METALS FROM I DON’T LIKE IT, BUT IF ONE
DAY SOMEBODY GETS OUT OF A DEADLY ACCIDENT BECAUSE OF MY
MATERIAL, I THINK I HAVE BEEN MY JOB AND I’M VERY PROUD TO HELP
MEET TO BE — I’M VERY PROUD. HELP ME TO BE PROUD.
I DON’T NEED TO REPEAT THAT ONE.
IT HAS THE POOL FIRE TESTING. WE TALKED ABOUT THE STRENGTHS OF THE TECHNOLOGY.
THIS TECHNOLOGY IS RELEASED TO A
STARTUP COMPANY THAT WAS ESTABLISHED RECENTLY
, AND WE ARE IN THE FUNDRAISING PROCESS TO
GET THIS ONE OUTSIDE INTO DIFFERENT APPLICATIONS, FROM
TANKERS TO ARMY — PERSONAL ARMOR, HELICOPTERS, CARS,
TRANSPORTATION OF HAZMAT, OF COURSE.
AND TO PROTECT AGAINST DEADLY ACCIDENTS. AND MANY MORE. THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR THE
OPPORTUNITY TO SPEAK HERE, THANKS TO D.O.T. ON THE OFFICE
OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL, FOR SUPPORTING OUR RESEARCH.
[APPLAUSE]>>QUESTIONS?>>HI, AND WITH THE TANKER
SAFETY RESEARCH PROJECT. QUESTIONS ABOUT THE HIGH-SPEED
IMPACT TEST YOU SHOWED US. I BELIEVE HE SAID IT WAS A
60-MILE AN HOUR IMPACT. DO YOU RECALL THAT THE
IMPACT FORCE OR ENERGY WAS? AFSANEH: I CAN SHARE WITH YOU
THE ARTICLE THAT WE HAVE PUBLISHED.>>OH, GREAT. THAT PROBABLY COVERS MY SECOND
QUESTION, WHICH IS THE DIMENSION OF THE SPECIMEN IMPACTED.
AFSANEH: WE HAD ABOUT TWO-INCH DIAMETER, AND IT WAS NOT — COULD NOT PROVIDE ENOUGH FORCE FOR OUR SAMPLES.
I WANTED TO GO ABOVE FIVE, 10%. WHEN YOU GO TO 40%, YOU SEE THE
DIFFERENCE. INCREASED STRENGTH IS COMING DOWN AROUND 30%. THAT IS WHERE THE AIR INSIDE THE
BUBBLES STARTS TO — CAN TAKE IT TO MORE THAN 30%. WE DID THE DIRECT IMPACT.
WE COULD REACH TO 35, 50% STRENGTH.
I COULD SEE THAT IT IS ACTUALLY COMING DOWN. I CAN SHARE IT WITH YOU.>>TERRIFIC, THANK YOU VERY
MUCH.>>JUST A QUESTION ABOUT
MANUFACTURABILITY. IS THIS PRODUCT — I DON’T KNOW
HOW IT IS MANUFACTURED, BUT IS IT TYPICALLY IN SHEETS?
AFSANEH: VERY GOOD QUESTION. WE ACTUALLY CAN MANUFACTURE THE
THREE HAVE BEEN MANUFACTURING IT IN THE FLAT PANELS. WE CAN ACTUALLY MANUFACTURE IT
AND SHAPE IT IN MACHINE IT AND GRIND IT. IT IS STILL A MAJORITY OF THE
MATERIALS , BULK OF THE MATERIALS
IS THE METRICS. WE NEED TO BE CAREFUL NOT TO
SQUEEZE OUT THROUGH THE PROCESS. IF YOU ARE MAKING CURVE THE STRUCTURE, EACH PANEL NEEDS TO
BE A LITTLE BIT CURVED. SO THAT IS DOABLE.
BUT IF YOU WANT TO MAKE SOMETHING VERY SMALL AND CURVED
AND YOU TO ACTUALLY MAKE IT AND THEN MACHINE IT.
THAT IS — THE BULK OF THE MATERIAL, TOO.>>YEAH, I HAVE A QUESTION. INCREDIBLE RESULTS. NEVER WOULD
ANYBODY COMPLAIN THAT THEY COULD — [INDISCERNIBLE]
THAT IS VERY CREDIBLE. IN TERMS OF YOUR POSSIBLE FORECAST TO MAKE THIS MATERIAL
FULLY COMMERCIAL, STARTUP COMPANY — [INDISCERNIBLE]
SO WE COULD GET TO THE PROCESS OF MAKING THE CYBER TECHNOLOGY
AVAILABLE TO INDUSTRY WHAT DO YOU THINK THAT TIMELINE LOOKS
LIKE? AFSANEH: IT DEPENDS ON THE AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS.
WE ARE ON THE FUNDRAISING PROCESS TO ESTABLISH THE
PRODUCTION. THE BOTTLENECK IS HERE. THERE ARE FOREIGN COUNTRIES WHO
REACH OUT TO ME AND THEY WANT TO INVEST. I CANNOT DEAL WITH THAT.
THE GOVERNMENT WANTS TO INVEST IN YOUR TECHNOLOGY.
WE WANT TO SEND YOU THIS, PLANE TICKET FOR YOU TO VISIT US — I
CAN’T DO THAT. I’M TRYING TO BE HELPFUL. THE BEST WOULD BE TO FIND
INVESTORS HERE, LOCAL INVESTORS,
GOVERNMENT INVESTORS WHO CAN HELP US ESTABLISH PRODUCTION,
AND ONCE WE GET TO THE THIRD PROCESS KNOW THAT THIS IS
DOABLE, THIS IS NOT, WE CAN DEAL
WITH THE OUTSIDE — AT THIS POINT I AM JUST TRYING TO STAY
BACK FROM ALL OF THESE PEOPLE –>>SO YOU WORK FOR DOD —
AFSANEH: YES, FOR ME, THE BEST APPROACH THAT I CAN THINK OF IS GIVE ME THE SEED MONEY TO THE
COMPANY SO THAT THE COMPANY CAN ESTABLISH THIS AND THEN OTHER
INVESTORS CAN COME AFTER.>>ANYBODY LOOKING ONLINE ON THE
LIVE FEED, SEND MONEY TO HER TO MAKE IT HAPPEN. [LAUGHTER]
AFSANEH: THE COMPANY, NOT ME. AND RESEARCHERS.>>IF YOU TALK TO FRANCISCO GONZALEZ ABOUT POSSIBLY PUTTING
TOGETHER A. TEST TEST PUTTING TOGETHER A
FULL — ABOUT POSSIBLY PUTTING TOGETHER A FULL SCALE TEST, DO
YOU TRUST THEM TO SEE HOW THIS PERFORMS VS. THE OTHER TESTS HE HAS PERFORMED?
AFSANEH: YES, ACTUALLY, FRANCISCO –>>I CAN ANSWER THAT QUESTION.
THROUGHOUT THIS ENTIRE PROCESS WE PARTNERED VERY HEAVILY WITH
FRANCISCO, AND MELISSA CAN ATTEST, AND ALL INVOLVED — WE GO PARTNERSHIP ON ALL THE IMPACT
TESTS. THEY ARE VERY WELL AWARE OF THE
RESULTS. ONE WE MOVED TO THIS STAGE —
WHEN WE MOVED TO THIS STAGE OF POTENTIALLY.
TESTING CAN WE DEFINITELY NEED TO THEIR FUNDS, SO WE NEED THEM
ON BOARD. AFSANEH: A LARGER FACILITY FOR
MANUFACTURING LARGER PIECES THAN THE SMALL LABORATORIES.>>AS A CAN IMAGINE, FULL-SCALE TESTING, YOU ARE TALKING ABOUT
MILLIONS. THAT IS THE ISSUE WITH THAT.
AFSANEH: PASS AROUND A HAT?>>YEAH, PASSARELLA HAD.
[LAUGHTER] AFSANEH: THANK YOU VERY MUCH.
[APPLAUSE]>>CAN WE HAVE MR. SCOTT MULLIN.
— NEXT UP, WE HAVE MR. SCOTT MULLIN.
MR. MULLIN IS A PROJECT MANAGER AT THE DYNAMICS TO PERMIT AT THE
SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTITUTE. HIS DEPARTMENT SPECIALIZES IN
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS, INCLUDING IMPACT, LAST, ARMOR, MECHANICS WEAPON EFFECTS.
MR. MULLIN HAS 33 YEARS OF EXPERIENCE IN A VARIETY OF
SUBJECT AREAS, AND TODAY HE WILL BE TALKING ABOUT SHAPE CHARGE
PACKAGING. SCOTT: YOU COULD THROW UP THE
SLIDES. THANKS VERY MUCH. APPRECIATE THE INTRODUCTION.
YOU HAVE A PROJECT THAT IS BEING CONDUCTED BY — LET’S SEE, THE
NEXT PAGE HERE — THE FUNDING AGENCY UNDER A PROJECT WE HAVE.
MYSELF AND A BUNCH OF FOLKS — I’M STANDING IN FOR THE PROJECT
MANAGER — AND HUMAN RESEARCH IS ALSO A PARTNER.
WE ARE IN SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS , HE IS IN AUSTIN, TEXAS.
THAT IS WHERE WE ARE SITTING. YOU DON’T KNOW WHAT THEY ARE.
THEY ARE AN EXPLOSIVE DEVICE UP AND DOWN THE HIGHWAYS QUITE A
BIT FOR THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY, AND THEY ARE
MANUFACTURED AT VARIOUS LOCATIONS, INCLUDING BACK IN THE
HOME STATE. SINCE THEY ARE HAZARDOUS DEVICE ,
THERE ARE A LOT OF CONTROLS AND CLASSIFICATIONS FOR THESE
DEVICES. WHAT WE ARE GOING TO FOCUS ON
NOW, WHAT PHMSA IS WANTING US TO
LOOK AT HIM IS WHEN NEW MATERIALS ARE MADE AND
MANUFACTURERS, UP WITH A DIFFERENT DESIGN, DIFFERENT GEOMETRY, THOSE KINDS OF THINGS,
CONSTANTLY EVOLVING THESE DESIGNS, TRY TO COME UP WITH
BETTER PERFORMING DEVICES, THEY TRIED TO CLASSIFY THE ANALOGY TO
THE EXISTING DESIGN IN ORDER TO AVOID SOME OF THE EXPENSES AND
THE TIME IS UP IT CAN TAKE MANY MONTHS, FROM WHAT I UNDERSTAND,
TO GET THE NUMBER TO TRANSPORT THE NEW DESIGNS.
WE ARE TRYING TO ADD SOME OF THE SCIENTIFIC RATIONALE TO THIS
ANALOGY, SINCE WHEN HAS PROVEN TO BE SAFETY TRANSPORT, THEN
MAKE ANYONE — CAN IT BE ANALOGOUS TO THE 1 — SOMETIMES
THEY CLAIM — ARE THEY TRULY ANALOGOUS OR NOT?
THAT IS BASICALLY WHAT WE ARE LOOKING AT.
WE ARE DOING EXPERIMENTAL WORK AND FUNDAMENTALLY SIMULATION
WORK — COMPLEMENTARY SIMULATION WORK TO SAY, YES, THAT IS A GOOD
APPROACH OR NOT, AND DEVELOP GUIDELINES.
WE ARE ABOUT NINE MONTHS INTO THE PROGRAM NOW, I THINK.
BASICALLY, USED EXTENSIVELY IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY.
ORIGINALLY, THESE DEVICES ARE POST-WORLD WAR I TIMEFRAME FOR
ARMOR PENETRATION. THESE ARE ARMOR PENETRATOR
DEVICES ORIGINALLY. LIKE THE ROCKET PROPELLED
GRENADES THEY LAUNCH A LONG, HIGH-SPEED METALLIC JET WHICH
HAS GREAT METAL PENETRATING CAPABILITY.
THEY ARE WIDELY USED IN THE MILITARY.
IT TURNS OUT THEY ARE ALSO USEFUL IN THE OIL AND GAS
INDUSTRY, WHEN THERE ARE WELLS THAT ARE DRILLED AND COMPLETED
WHERE THEY LINED THEM WITH THE STEEL AND CONCRETE SHAFT MANY
THOUSANDS OF FEET DEEP INTO THE EARTH THROUGH DIFFERENT LAYERS. THEY WANT TO GO BACK AND PRODUCE
THESE THINGS. THEY RUN THESE LITTLE VERSIONS
OF THE MILITARY CHARGE JETS IN THE LONG, CYLINDRICAL DEVICE
THAT THEY CALL A GUN. THEY WILL DROP IT DOWN AT THE
RIGHT HOLE AND FIRE THESE THINGS OFF.
IT WILL PENETRATE THROUGH THE STEEL AND CONCRETE CASING IN THE
WALL, AND ALLOW THE OIL TO FLOW IN. THEY WANT THESE THINGS TO
OPERATE HIGHLY RELIABLY. THEY SPEND MANY MILLIONS OF
DOLLARS DRILLING ONE OF THESE WELLS.
IT IS VERY IMPORTANT THAT THEY OPERATE PROPERLY.
THE COMMERCIAL OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY USES MANY THOUSANDS OF
THESE THINGS. THEY ARE USED ALL THE TIME
ACROSS THE COUNTRY AND SHIP ACROSS THE COUNTRY.
HOW SICK CANDIDATE OR CAN I NOT BE — HOW SAFE CAN THEY OR CAN
THEY NOT BE? X THE DINING THE PROCESS RIGHT
NOW TO GET THE EX MEMBER — LET ME GIVE YOU AN EXAMPLE OF WHAT
THIS CHARGE LOOKS LIKE AND WHAT WE’RE DOING TO TRY TO FACILITATE
THIS PROCESS, BOTH FROM HELPING OUT ON THE PRODUCER’S SITE AND
MAKING SURE IT IS SAFE THE DOT SITE.
YOUR SIGNATURE ON THE RIGHT-HAND SIDE.
THIS IS USUALLY SOME MATERIAL THAT IS LIKE COPPER, ALTHOUGH IT
DOESN’T ALWAYS HAVE TO BE COPPER, BUT TYPICALLY COVER
MATERIAL. — COPPER MATERIAL. IT IS SURROUNDED BY AN EXPLOSIVE
CHARGE, NUMBER4, — NUMBER FOUR, AND THE BOOSTER CHARGE IN
BACK OF IT. WHEN THE DETONATOR SETS THIS
THING OFF, THE EXPLOSIVE COLLAPSES THAT JET AND IT
INVERTS AND COLLAPSES ON ITSELF AND STREAMS OUT A LONG, METALLIC
JET. IT IS NOT REALLY A FLUID. IT IS A HIGHLY PLASTICIZED FLOW
AT THAT POINT. I WILL SHOW PICTURES TO EXPLAIN
WHAT THAT IS LIKE IN A MOMENT. THIS LONG TO MATERIAL TRAVELS OF
EXTREMELY HIGH SPEEDS — 7, 8, 9 KILOMETERS PER SECOND. THAT IS RARE GETS ITS
PENETRATING CAPABILITY, ALONG WITH THE DENSITY OF COPPER.
THESE THINGS ARE USED TO PENETRATE THE GEOLOGIC MATERIAL
OR PUNCH THROUGH THE OIL WELL CASING IN ORDER TO ALLOW THE OIL
TO FLOW INTO THE MAIN PIPELINE IN THE UPPER GROUND.
THE MANUFACTURERS, IN ORDER TO PRODUCE BETTER, SMALLER, MORE
RELIABLE, THEY CHANGE THINGS LIKE THE EXPLOSIVE, THE NUMBER
FOR CONTENT, THE CASE AROUND THESE THINGS, NUMBER ONE.
FOR SHIPPING AND PUTTING INTO THESE KINDS OF SYSTEMS AND
PROTECTING THEM WHILE THEY ARE GOING DOWN, THEY HAVE TO RESIST
HIGH TEMPERATURES DOWN DEEP IN THE EARTH.
THE CASING MATERIAL ON THE OUTSIDE IS IMPORTANT.
IT IS USUALLY METALLIC MATERIAL. AS THE MANUFACTURER MAKES THE
NEW DEVICE WITH THE NEW CASEWORKER CASE, THEY HAVE TO GO THROUGH
THE ENTIRE PROCESS, WHICH I WILL DESCRIBE BRIEFLY, OR CAN THEY
SAY THIS IS SIMILAR TO A PREVIOUS DEVICE THAT HAS BEEN
CERTIFIED AND 10 WE SHIP IT? HERE IS THE EXAMPLE FROM THE
UPPER LEFT TO THE RIGHT, YOU SEE COMPUTER SIMULATIONS — BACK
HOME WE DO A LOT OF COMPUTER SIMULATIONS, AND YOU SEE THE
BASIS OF A LOT OF ANALOGIES TO UNDERSTAND THE FUNDAMENTALS OF
HOW THESE THINGS PERFORM COMMANDMENTS IN RELATIONS TO THE
WAY THESE THINGS ARE PACKAGED TO UNDERSTAND WHAT HAPPENS WHEN
THESE CHANGES ARE MADE. MOVING FROM THE UPPER LEFT TO
THE UPPER RIGHT, THE BLACK IS THE LINER MATERIAL.
THE TENNIS MATERIAL IS THE EXPLOSIVE.
INSIDE OF THAT IS A THIN LINER. GOING IN MICROSECONDS OF TIME,
YOU SEE THE EXPLOSIVE DETONATES, THE CASE BULGES, YELLOWISH THING IN THE MIDDLE IS THE
COPPER LINER. THE REDDISH AND TA THOSE ARE REDDISH MATERIALS.
HERE IT SHOOTS THE FIRED ON THE CENTER OF THE CASE ON THE
OUTSIDE BRAKES AND FRAGMENTS. THE TWO THREATS FROM WHEN THESE
ARE DETONATED IS THE JET, EXTREMELY HIGH-SPEED, TRAVELING
STRAIGHT DOWN THE CENTER ACCESS, AND THE FRAGMENTS FROM THE
OUTSIDE FLY OUT. BOTH OF THESE BECOME POTENTIAL
DETONATION THREATS FOR NEIGHBORING PIECES.
THE GOOD THING IS, THERE ARE SEVERAL SERIES OF CODES THAT CAN
MODEL THE BEHAVIOR OF THESE JETS. THERE ARE EXPLOSIVE MODELS
WHICH SIMULATE THE REACTION OF THOSE EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS AND
FRACTURE MECHANICS MODELS. THE PARTICULAR THING THAT DID
THIS WORK IS CALLED CTH. IT WAS DEVELOPED BACK IN THE INNER ORIGINAL DAYS FOR NUCLEAR
WEAPONS EVALUATIONS. THIS IS WHAT TYPICAL PACKAGING MIGHT BE.
WHEN WE STARTED THE PROGRAM, CARL AND A COUPLE OTHER FOLKS
REACHED OUT TO MANUFACTURERS AND TRANSPORTERS TO LET THEM KNOW
WHAT WE ARE DOING AND HELPED THEM UNDERSTAND THEIR PROCESSES . HOW THEY TYPICALLY PACKAGED
THEM. AND THEY’VE BEEN VERY
FORTHCOMING, EVEN SUPPLYING US WITH SOME OF THESE SHAPED
CHARGES FOR TESTING. IT WOULD TYPICALLY BE A
CARDBOARD BOX. THE USE GREAT NUMBERS OF THESE
THINGS AND THEY LIKE TO BE ABLE TO SHIFT THEM IN PACKAGING LIKE
THIS. THEY ARE TRYING TO PRESENT SOME
SYMPATHETIC EFFECTS FROM ONE SITE TO THE OTHER.
THEY ALSO LIKE TO STACK THEM IN MULTIPLE ROWS.
YOU CAN SEE THE GUIDE — THE DIAGRAM ON THE LEFT, THE RED
OVAL SHAPE. WHEN THESE THINGS SHIFTED THEY
SHIFT SUCH THAT THE CONES FACE EACH OTHER.
I BELIEVE THAT IS BECAUSE THE SECOND DEVICE IS SUPPOSED OFFER
SOME RESISTANCE AGAINST THE INITIAL JET THAT MIGHT HAVE
FIRED. YOU WILL SEE FROM THE
SIMULATIONS THAT THE INITIAL JET CAN SHOOT UP IN AND INITIATE THE
CHARGE ITSELF. I THINK IT IS DONE THIS WAY
QUITE A BIT. I DON’T BELIEVE THAT THERE ARE
ACCIDENTAL ISSUES. THE NEED TO MAKE SURE THEY ARE
ON TOP OF THE SAFETY AS NEW DEVICES ARE MADE.
THERE ARE CERTAIN REQUIREMENTS WHICH I MENTIONED FOR
COMPLETENESS. WE WILL TALK ABOUT THE REAL
TESTING WORK THAT HAS TO BE DONE TO QUALIFY THESE ASSESSMENT
SLIDES. WE TALKED ABOUT THE DIFFERENCE — THE DIFFERENT EXPLOSIVE
DIVISIONS AND HOW THEY ARE CLASSIFIED. 1.1’S DOWN TO 1.4’S.
MASS EXPLOSIVE HAZARD MEANS ALL OF THE EXPLOSIVE GOES OFF.
THERE IS A GREAT THREAT FROM PRESSURE AND FRAGMENT LOADS
GOING OUT. IF YOU CAN CLASSIFY SUCCESSFULLY
AS A 1.4, YOU CAN HAVE A SMALL HAZARD EVENT. THERE IS IGNITION.
THEIR LARGELY CONFINED WITHIN THE PACKAGE.
IF ONE OF THESE GOES OFF , ALL OF
THE NEIGHBORS DO NOT NECESSARILY GO OFF.
THE EFFECT OF ONE OF THOSE IGNITIONS IS CONTAINED WITHIN
THAT CONTAINER. THE INDUSTRY WOULD LIKE TO SHIP AT 1.4 BECAUSE IT IS EASIER. WHEN WE MOVED EXPLOSIVES FROM
OUR LABORATORY TO THE TEST RANGES IF WE HAVE 1.1 THERE ARE
EXTRA REQUIREMENTS THAT WE HAVE TO DO.
THE GOAL WOULD BE CAN WE DO THIS? BUT OF COURSE IT HAS
TO PASS THE TESTING STANDARDS AND IT HAS TO
BE SAFE. THERE ARE CERTAIN TESTS KNOWN IN
THE INDUSTRY AND I WILL TALK ABOUT THESE MORE.
THESE ARE THE THINGS THAT WE WANT TO SIMULATE WITH OUR CODE
AND DO EXPERIMENTS SO WE CAN VERIFY WE HAVE A VALID APPROACH
THAT WILL HELP THIS CLASSIFICATION.
THERE ARE SYSTEMATIC STEPS WHERE YOU RUN THESE TESTS.
YOU WORK YOUR WAY DOWN TO THE TREE.
THAT IS HOW YOU — THAT IS HOW YOU BECOME A CLASS 1.1 OR A
CLASS 114. — 1.4. THERE IS A CLASSIFICATION ISSUE HERE OR YOU CANNOT SELECT
EXPLOSIVES AND DETONATORS WITHIN
CLOSE PROXIMITY TO EACH OTHER. IT IS OUTSIDE THE TALK, SO WE WON’T GET INTO COMPATIBILITY.
THERE IS A SIX A AND 6B TEST. 6A, TRIED TO THINK OF THIS
PICTURE HERE AS A BOX. THE 6A TEST IS A MASSIVE EXPLOSION EVENT.
IF WE PURPOSEFULLY SET ONE OF THESE OFF, WHAT DOES IT DO TO
ITS NEIGHBORS? DO THEY EXPLODE? THERE IS A CENTER CRITERIA THAT
YOU CAN SEE IN THE MIDDLE. WE MEASURE THE BLAST PRESSURE
AND WE SEE — IT IS SURROUNDED BY WITNESS PLATES. THIS WAS A MASS EXPLOSION.
THERE ARE CERTAIN CRITERIA THAT YOU HALF TO PASS. IF YOU HAVE A MASS EXPLOSIVE
EVENT THAT IS A 1.1. IF NOT, YOU GO ON TO TEST 6B. THAT MEANS IT DID NOT MASK
DETONATE THE ENTIRE PACKAGE. WE USE A SERIES OF OTHER CONTAINERS.
THE IDEA IS, IF I PURPOSEFULLY DETONATE ONE CHARGE, DO THE
EFFECTS PROPAGATE INTO THE NEIGHBOR PACKAGE?
THE TEST CRITERIA FOR EXAMINING THOSE ARE FAIRLY SIMILAR.
IT HAS TO BE DAMAGED FROM WORSE THAN THE 6A TEST. IF MORE THAN ONE PACKAGE
DETONATES, IT FALLS BACK TO DIVISION 1.1
THIS IS A SEPARATE TEST, A RESISTANCE TO FIRE TEST. IF ONE OF THOSE PACKAGES HAPPENS
TO CATCH FIRE, FIRE CAN INITIATE EXPLOSIVES. THERE IS A LOT OF INFORMATION ON
EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS, THEIR SENSITIVITY TO IMPACT. PETN DOWN TO TNT ON THE BOTTOM. YOU’RE LOOKING AT HOW MUCH TIME
DOES IT TAKE THESE EXPLOSIVES TO BLOW UP GIVEN THE TEMPERATURES
THAT THEY ARE AT. YOU STILL HAVE TO RUN THIS TEST. TREATMENT RESEARCH IS DOING THE
FIRE OF MODELING. EXPLOSIVES WILL BURN AND IF
UNCONFINED, WE HAVE STORIES ABOUT SOLDIERS IN VIETNAM
RIPPING OUT THE C4 EXPLOSIVE END USING IT TO COOK THEIR FOOD. IF IT IS NOT CONFINED IT WILL
JUST BURN. IF THERE IS CONFINEMENT, IT CAN LEAD TO AN EXPLOSION. I WAS GOING TO SHOW YOU THE
PICTURE OF THAT ONE. I WILL COME BACK TO THAT. THIS LAST TEST IN THE SERIES IS
THE 6 — 6D TEST. YOU ARE MAINLY FOCUSING ON WHAT
HAPPENS OUTSIDE. IT IS A SIMILAR TO THE 6-1 TE ST. YOU ARE LOOKING DOES IT
NOT MASK THE TO NAME THE CHARGES BUT
DOESN’T THROW HAZARDS OUTSIDE THE PACKAGE AND CREATE DAMAGE IN
THAT WAY? IF IT CAN GO THROUGH THAT KIND
OF TESTING, IT GOES TO A SEPARATE COMPATIBILITY. THE THING FOR THIS PROJECT THAT
WE ARE DOING IS TO EXPEDITE THE PROCESS — IT LOOKS LIKE IF THERE IS A METHODOLOGY WE ARE
WORKING TOWARD IT WITH THIS SIMULATION-BASED ANALOGY
APPROACH. WE EXPEDITE THE REVIEW PROCESS TO DETERMINE IF THESE TESTS CAN
BE SAFELY SIMULATED WITH SIMULATIONS IN ORDER TO
DELINEATE BETWEEN 1.1 AND 1.4 AND GIVE AN IDEA TO THE INDUSTRY
THAT IT IS SAFE TO SHIFT THESE THINGS — SHIP THESE THINGS
THROUGH THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. WE’VE DONE THE RESEARCH OF THE
MATERIALS BEING USED BY THE MANUFACTURERS. LOOK FOR THE INFORMATION
AVAILABLE. WE HAVE A LARGE DATABASE AND
THERE IS MORE OF THAT MATERIAL AVAILABLE.
WE ARE TRYING TO ASSESS THE PORTABILITY OF THESE EXPLOSIVE
DEVICES. CAN WE USE THE SIMULATION
METHODS TO ESTIMATE AND IF YOU’RE GOING TO GET SOME OF THE
SYMPATHETIC DETONATIONS WHERE ONE CHARGE GOES OFF DOES IT OR
DOES IT NOT AFFECT ITS NEIGHBOR? WE WILL MAKE SURE THAT OUR
SIMULATION CAPABILITIES ARE SIMILAR TO WHAT HAPPENS IN REAL
LIFE. SO YOU CAN GET THIS EVENT THAT
IS CALLED A SYMPATHETIC DETONATION. BASICALLY THERE IS A
CHARGE THAT GOES OFF AND THE ONE
THAT IS IMPACTED BY THE JET OR THE FRAGMENTS.
EXPLOSIVES WILL INITIATE IF THEY
HAVE A SUFFICIENT SHOCK UPON THEM. IF THEY HAVE A SUFFICIENT
THERMAL EVENT. UNDER CERTAIN CONDITIONS THE CAN
SYMPATHETICALLY DETONATE. THE FIRE TEST IS THE COOKOFF
TEST. WILL THEY JUST BURN OFF OR WILL
THEY REACH CONDITIONS WHERE THEY DETONATE.
DETONATION IS YOUR CLASSIC HOLLYWOOD THING WHERE THE ENERGY
IS RELEASED IN A SHORT AMOUNT OF TIME. YOU CREATE SHOCKWAVES.
FRAGMENTS AT 5000 FEET PER SECOND. THAT IS AN EXTREMELY
HIGH ENERGY RELEASE RATE. YOU CAN GET A SLOW COOKOFF WHERE
IT JUST BURNS AND THAT IS NOT NECESSARILY AS BAD. WE ARE LOOKING AT THE
SYMPATHETIC DETONATION, THE SHAPE CHARGE IMPACT AND THE CASE
FRAGMENT IMPACT AND MEASURING WITH THESE LAST OVER PRESSURES
ARE. HERE IS A SIMULATION GOING FROM
THE UPPER LEFT TO THE UPPER RIGHT.
IF YOU REMEMBER WHEN YOU STACK LAYERS OF THESE THINGS IN THE
SHIPPING PACKAGE, ONE CAN BLOW UP INTO THE OTHER.
THIS ALL OCCURS WITHIN MICROSECONDS.
THE JET MOVES FROM THE BOTTOM TO THE TOP, THE ACCEPTOR.
IN THE COLOR BAR TELLS YOU WHAT PRESSURES ARE BEING GENERATED IN
THESE MATERIALS. THE COLORS ARE A LITTLE BIT MORE
INDICATIVE. THERE ARE CERTAIN CRITERIA FOR
THE INITIATION OF THE EXPLOSIVES.
IF THE CONE ON THE TOP WHICH IS BLUE GETS RED — THE CRITERIA FOR DETONATION HAS BEEN ACHIEVED
IN THAT CHARGE WILL GO OFF. IN THIS PARTICULAR SITUATION IF ONE OF THESE WENT OFF THE SECOND
WOULD GO OFF. IN THIS CORNER WE WERE DOING
EXPERIMENTS TO COMPARE SIMULATIONS. THE GREATER IMAGE IS A SINGLE
FLASH X-RAY IMAGE AT THE RIGHT TIME AND THE CHARGE ON THE RIGHT
IS A DETONATION OF THE SHAPE CHARGE CHAT.
THIS IS A VERY HIGH-SPEED FLASH X-RAY IMAGE.
ON TOP OF THAT IS THE MATERIALS THAT THE CODE PREDICTED WHAT
WOULD HAPPEN BASED ON THOSE CERTAIN CONDITIONS. WE
DID THIS SIMULATION BEFORE WE DID THE TEST. THIS IS OUR RADIO FRAGMENT TEST.
AT THE CENTER THERE IS A’S — THERE IS A SHAPED CHARGE
SURROUNDED BY WITNESS PLATES. THE CASE EXPLODES AND IT PUTS
HOLES INTO THE WITNESS PLATES. ON THE RIGHT IMAGE THERE ARE
FRAGMENTS COLLECTED. WE SUBMERGED THE WHOLE THING ON
THE LEFT INTO A WATER TANK SO WHEN IT EXPLODES THE WATER SLOWS
THE FRAGMENTS DOWN BEFORE IT PUNCHES THEM OUT AND YOU CAN GO
IN LATER WITH A MAGNET AND SCOOP THEM UP.
WE WANTED TO KNOW IF OUR SIMULATIONS PREDICT THE RIGHT
AMOUNT OF FRAGMENTS. THE IMPACT OF THE FRAGMENT IS BASED ON THE MATERIAL AND SPEED.
THE ONE AT THE CENTER IS DETONATING AND SENDING OUT
FRAGMENTS TO HIT NEIGHBORS. THE IMPACT CONDITIONS CREATE
ENOUGH OF A SHOCKWAVE THAT THEY WILL INITIATE THE EXPLOSION
THEMSELVES. IN THE INDUSTRY WHAT WE HEAR SOMETIMES IS I CHANGED MY
MATERIAL BUT MADE IT THINNER. IT SHOULD BE LESS SENSITIVE.
SOMETIMES THESE THINGS ARE COUNTERINTUITIVE.
A THINNER MATERIAL WOULD PROJECT FASTER HIGHER IMPACT SPEED ON
ITS NEIGHBOR. YOU’D HAVE A MORE SENSITIVE, NOT
LESS SENSITIVE DEVICE. SOME OF THIS STUFF IS
COUNTERINTUITIVE IN THAT REGARD. WE HAVEN’T DONE ANY OF THESE YET
THAT WE WILL BE CONDUCTING THEM IN THE NEXT FIVE OR SIX WEEKS. YOU BASICALLY BURN THEM AND KEEP
THEM BURNING. YOU MEASURE THINGS LIKE TEMPERATURE IN THE ENVIRONMENT
AND YOU CAN SEE SOME WITNESS PLATES ON THE SIDE. I THINK THAT IS BASICALLY IT.
WE ARE HAPPY WITH THAT X-RAY PICTURE SO WE LIKE TO SHOW IT.>>I THINK WE ARE RUNNING OUT OF
TIME BUT IF THERE ARE PRESSING QUESTIONS FROM THE AUDIENCE, WE
CAN TAKE THAT.>>MAY AT THE BREAK.>>WE HAVE ONE MORE SPEAKER.
MELISSA IS THE PROGRAM MANAGER OF THE RAIL ENERGY AND
ENVIRONMENT AND TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH PROGRAM.
SHE IS A MECHANICAL ENGINEER. HER RESEARCH PROGRAM FOCUSES ON ALTERNATIVE THEORIES, POWERFUL LOCOMOTIVES AND ON ENERGY
EFFICIENCY. SHE WILL TALK TO US TODAY ABOUT RESEARCH GOING ON WITH LIQUEFIED
NATURAL GAS TANK CAR RESEARCH. MELISSA: THANK YOU FOR HAVING ME
HERE TODAY. I WILL SPEAK ON SOME OF THE
RESEARCH WE ARE DOING WITH LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS. WE WORK WITH THIS RESEARCH
PROGRAM TOGETHER AND I WILL HOPEFULLY BE ABLE TO ANSWER ALL
OF YOUR QUESTIONS. IN ORDER FOR US TO DO RESEARCH
WE HAVE TO HAVE A MISSION AND A GOAL. THE MISSION IS TO REDUCE THE
INCIDENCE THAT RESULT IN THE RELEASE OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL
FROM THEIR CONTAINERS. THE GOAL AND SUPPORTING THAT
MISSION IS TO HAVE SAFETY, WE WORK CLOSELY WITH THE RAIL
INDUSTRY TO ENSURE THE RESEARCH WE ARE DOING LINES UP WITH THE
GOALS OF THE INDUSTRY. IN SUPPORT OF THOSE GOALS,
FRANCISCO AND I HAVE A LOT OF RESEARCH. ONE THAT WE ARE WORKING ON RIGHT
NOW — ONE IS A FIRE TEST, THE LNG ISO-TANK AND A CRASH TEST. I WILL START BY TELLING YOU
ABOUT THE FIRE TEST FROM LAST YEAR AND GOING THROUGH SOME OF
THE DETAILS OF THAT EVENT. IN THAT FIRE TEST EFFORT OUR
OBJECTIVE WAS TO SEE HOW THE CONTAINER PERFORMED UNDER A
FULL-SCALE POOL FIRE. TO DEVELOP INFORMATION ABOUT HOW
WE CAN IMPLEMENT SUCH A CONTAINER FOR REPEATABILITY IN
OUR TEST AND SEE HOW THE SAFETY FEATURES ON THOSE CONTAINERS
PERFORM AS EXPECTED, AS THEY SHOULD. THIS WAS COMPLETED LAST YEAR.
WE DID IT IN MAY 2017. WE DISCUSSED THIS ALMOST TO THE
END OF TEXAS. JUST IN THE EVENT THAT IF SOMETHING HAPPENS, THE ISO-TANK
HAS A 10,000 GALLON CAPACITY TANK AND IT IS FILLED WITH
LIQUID NITROGEN. WE DID NOT USE LNG BECAUSE IT IS
A FIRST OF ITS KIND TEST. WE USE PROPANE FUEL FOR THE FIRE.
THE FLAT CAR IS ABOUT 89 FEET. AND THE ISO-TANK IS ABOUT 40
FEET. IT IS TYPICAL FOR THAT TYPE OF
ISO-TANK. WE WORKED WITH CBA TO BUILD A
TANK TO PICK RESEARCH TO APPROPRIATELY IMPLEMENT THE
TANK. THIS IS A PHOTO OF THE TEST
PARTICLE. THIS WENT THROUGH VARIOUS
LOCATIONS WITHIN THE TANK. ONCE THE FIRE STARTED OF COURSE
THE GUY GOT OUT. TECHNICAL DIFFICULTIES ARE
NORMAL IN THAT INDUSTRY. ONE THING THAT WE LEARN FROM THE
TEST IS THAT FOR THE NEXT TEST WE WILL NEED A STRONG SNACK BAR.
THE ONE THAT WE HAD KIND OF MELTED AROUND OUR TWO OR SO.
THAT IMPACTED THE PROPANE FUEL. WE HAVE TO MAKE SURE THAT MOTHER
NATURE GETS THE MEMO SO THE WIND WILL BE PERFECT.
IT THIS TEST THE WIND PUSHED THE FLAMES TO THE
WESTSIDE SO WE DID NOT GET A FULLY ENGULFED FIRE AS
WE WERE HOPING. I WILL SEE IF I CAN SPEED THIS UP. WE ALSO LEARNED FROM THIS TEST
THAT WE NEED TO ENSURE THE WILD ANIMALS AND CATTLE ARE FAR FROM
THE FIRE. THIS WAS ONE OF OUR LESSONS
LEARNED. THIS CAR BUCKLED AND IT IMPINGED
IT IN THE FIRE PIT. IT IMPINGED THAT WHICH AFFECTED
THE PROPANE. WITHIN THE FIRE PIT THERE ARE
PIPES THAT WHEN THE PROPANE WAS SUBMERGED IN WATER TO MAKE SURE
IT DID NOT FREEZE. THE LESSON FROM THAT IS ONCE THE
FIRE GETS GOING WE DON’T NEED TO KEEP THAT ALL THE WAY IN THE
PIT. WE HAD A FEELING THERE WOULD BE
FIRE. WE ALSO HOPE TO GET AERIAL PHOTOS IN OUR NEXT FIRE TEST. THIS IS THE AFTER EFFECT.
WHAT WE FOUND FROM THIS TEST IS THAT SOME OF THE INSULATION FAILED.
WE FOUND THAT IF THE PRV’S OPERATED AS INTENDED IT OPENED
UP THE PRESSURE. WE HAVE A LOT OF DATA THAT WE
ARE LOOKING AT FOR OUR NEXT TEST WHICH IS LATER THIS YEAR. ABOUT HALF AN HOUR INTO THE TEST
, THE SIGNAL FOR THE VACUUM PRESSURE WAS LOST AND THEN IT
CAME BACK. WE LOST SEVERAL OTHER SIGNALS SO
AFTER A CERTAIN POINT WE WERE NOT SURE THAT THE DATA WAS
RELIABLE SO WE WERE LOOKING AT OTHER WAYS HOW TO ENSURE ONCE SIGNALS ARE LOST WE CAN HAVE A
REDUNDANT SYSTEM TO GIVE US CONTINUOUS DATA FLOW. ABOUT ONE HOUR INTO THE TEST,
THE FIRST PRV WAS OPENED. WE ARE HAPPY TO SEE THAT THE
TANK DID NOT RUPTURE. THE SAFETY FEATURES OPERATED AS
INTENDED. WE WERE HAPPY WITH THE TEST OVERALL. WE WERE EXERCISING DIFFERENT
SOLUTIONS SO THAT IN OUR NEXT TEST WE HAVE A LOT OF REDUNDANT
SIGNALS. WE ARE WORKING WITH MORE RESEARCH IN OUR INSTRUMENTATION.
SO TO FAMILIARIZE — TO SIMULATE
THE FIRE TEST WE PARTIALLY ENGULFED THE ISO-TANK AND A
PROPANE FIRE AND IT LASTS ABOUT TWO HOURS AND 35 MINUTES.
THE TANK DIDN’T RUPTURE AND THAT WAS A GOOD THING.
WE WERE ABLE TO SEE THAT THE PRESSURE RELEASE SYSTEM WORKED
AS INTENDED. AS THE FIRE WAS EXTINGUISHED, THE TANK COMPLETELY VENTED ITS
CONTENTS AND BY THE NEXT MORNING
WE WERE DOWN TO ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE WHICH IS PRETTY GOOD. IN 2018 THIS YEAR WE WANTED TO
DO ANOTHER TEST WITH THE ISO-TEST AT THIS TIME WE’RE
USING LNG. THIS IS REALLY TO SEE WHAT WOULD
HAPPEN IF WE HAD LNG IN THE ISO-TANK.
WE GET A LOT OF REQUESTS FOR MOVEMENT OF LNG ISO-TANKS AND
THAT IS WHAT THIS WORK IS SUPPORTING. WE WANT TO MAKE SURE WE ARE
ACCURATELY GATHERING THE TEMPERATURE DATA INSIDE THE
TANK. ONCE THE TEST IS FINISHED THERE
WILL BE A REPORT THAT WOULD DETAIL WHAT WE HAVE DONE AND
WHAT WE HAVE LEARNED. THAT IS IN SUPPORT OF SAFE
TRANSPORTATION AND USE OF LNG. WE ARE LOOKING AT A CRASH TEST. THERE IS A REQUIREMENT IN THOSE
TESTS. THAT IS TO SHOW THAT THEY
PROTECTIVE HOUSING WHICH CONTAINS PIPES AND VALVES OF
FUEL OF LNG — THAT THE HOUSING CAN WITHSTAND THE 80,000 POUND
TRUCK INTO IT AT 40 MILES AN HOUR.
THAT IS WHY WE RAISED CONCERNS THAT MAY BE VALVE WOULD NOT WORK
AS INTENDED. THAT IS WHAT WE WERE HOPING TO SHOW WITH THE IMPACT TEST. IF IT IS IN MOTION, THE VALVES
WOULD OPEN. AND IF THERE IS A GOOD IMPACT
DURING THAT TIME THEN WE MAY HAVE THE LNG SPILL. THAT IS WHAT WE WERE HOPING TO
LEARN, HOW TO THESE VALVES OPERATE UNDER SIGNIFICANT
IMPACT. THE VALVES WOULD NEED TO KNOW HOW THEY OPERATE IN THE REAL
ENVIRONMENT, SO THE GOAL OF THIS
TEST FOR 2019 IS TO EVALUATE THE SURVIVOR.
THAT WOULD BE USED TO FUEL THE TENDER AND OFFLOAD LNG.
AS I SAID IT WOULD BE IMPACTED BY THE 80,000 POUND TRUCK AT 40
MILES AN HOUR. IT WILL NOT INCLUDE — [INAUDIBLE]
THIS WILL NOT BE A TENDER FOR IN-SERVICE USE WE ARE NOT GOING
TO PAY THE EXTRA DOLLARS TO GET THOSE FEW THINGS WE ARE NOT
GOING TO NEED. THE SPEC FOR THAT NATURAL GAS FUEL TENDER — THE REQUIREMENTS HAVE ABOUT FIVE DIFFERENT
SCENARIOS FOR DYNAMIC STRUCTURAL STRENGTH TEST. WE FOCUS ON VARIOUS IMPACTS. THIS SLIDE SHOWS A LITTLE BIT OF
THE LANGUAGE FROM THE SPECIFICATIONS. WE WILL STICK TO THE
SPECIFICATIONS AS MUCH AS WE CAN . THE SPEC REQUIRES A SEMI-TRACTOR
TRAILER AT 80,000 POUNDS WE THOUGHT THAT MAYBE A
SEMI-TRACTOR TRAILER WOULD NOT COOPERATE UNDER THE TEST
CONDITIONS. WE HAVE GONE TO THE ADR TAG AND LOOK FOR PERMISSION TO USE A
DUMP TRUCK. THEY HAVE GIVEN US PERMISSION TO
MAKE THAT MINOR MODIFICATION. WE ARE WORKING WITH THE TAG.
ANYTHING THAT GOES CONTRARY TO THE SPECIFICATION, WE HAVE THE
DISCUSSION WITH THEM AND HAVE OBTAINED THE RIGHT “APPROVAL AGREEMENT.”
WE DO NOT USE THIS TEST WITH LIQUID NITROGEN. IT WILL BE DONE AT THE
TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY CENTER IN PLAY BLOW — PUEBLO, COLORADO. ANY QUESTIONS?>>ON THE ISO-TANK FIRE TEST, IT
HAS BEEN OBSERVED THAT IN ISO-TANK IN TRANSPORTATION AS
OPPOSED TO A TENDER WOULD BE IN THE WELL CAR WHICH HAS NO FLOOR
SO THE TANK WOULD BE DIRECTLY EXPOSED TO THE POOL FIRE.
HAS THAT LED TO ANY THOUGHT OF CHANGING THE CAR INVOLVED?>>WE ARE IN DISCUSSIONS WITH THAT.
FOR THE FIRST TEST THE CAR WAS DONATED.
AS WE LOOK FOR ANOTHER TEST WE ARE CONSIDERING ALL OF OUR
OPTIONS.>>THANK YOU.>>WHEN YOU SAID THAT THE LNG POOL FIRE ISO-TANK TEST THAT IT
WAS NOT COMPROMISED WAS IT THE INSIDE TANK OR THE OUTSIDE TANK
OR BOTH?>>IT PERFORMED FAIRLY WELL.
THANK YOU.>>THAT CONCLUDES THIS SESSION, I THINK WE ARE TAKING A 15
MINUTE BREAK. THANK YOU TO ALL OF OUR
SPEAKERS. ONE LAST ROUND OF APPLAUSE.>>WE WILL GIVE YOU A FULL 15.
COME BACK AT AROUND 3:20.>>IT IS 3:20 AND WE SHOULD GET THE AFTERNOON SESSION STARTED.
GOOD AFTERNOON AND THANK YOU FOR STICKING WITH US.
I AM THE DIRECTOR OF SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND RESEARCH ON THE
HAZMAT SIDE. I NEED TO GIVE A SHOUT OUT TO MY
STAFF. WE WERE ABLE TO ATTRACT — I THINK YOU WILL AGREE WITH ME
THAT BOTH ARE TURNING OUT TO BE SOLID BASE HITS IF NOT HOME RUNS.
THIS IS TRUE FOR THE ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS THAT WE HIRED IN
THE PAST COUPLE OF YEARS. I AM PROUD OF BEING BLESSED WITH
DEDICATED AND COMPETENT STAFF. IT STRONGLY SUPPORTS NATIONAL
PRIORITIES OF ENERGY INDEPENDENCE AND ENERGY
DOMINANCE. BECAUSE OF THE LACK OF
SUFFICIENT INFRASTRUCTURE OF THE PIPE LINES, THE INDUSTRY HAS
CHOSEN TO GET THOSE PRODUCTS TO MARKET BY RAIL . SEVERAL OTHER SPECTACULAR INCIDENTS INVOLVING RAIL
PRODUCTS HAVE SPURRED US OVER THE LAST SEVERAL YEARS TO TAKE
DOZENS OF SPECIFIC ACTIONS TO ADDRESS THESE SAFETY CONCERNS. THE NEXT THREE PRESENTATIONS
THAT WE WILL DISCUSS AND DESCRIBE COLLABORATIVE PROJECTS.
THE FIRST OF THESE ADDRESSES THE APPROACH TO ADDRESSING THE RISK
OF THE EMERGING MARKETS. PLEASE WELCOME DAVID WILLAUER FROM CAMBRIDGE SYSTEMATICS.
HE IS THE VICE CHAIR OF THE COMMITTEE OF HAZMAT TRANSPORT. WELCOME, DAVID.
DAVID: THANK YOU LAD, AND THANK YOU, EVA, RICK, VETA. I WOULD LIKE TO THANK MY
COLLEAGUES HERE TODAY. AND PRESENT TO YOU THE RESULTS
OF OUR RESEARCH. LET’S SEE IF THE PRESENTATION IS
UP HERE. MY COLLEAGUES ARE HERE FROM THE
CHICAGO OFFICE AND SEAN LUKE IS HERE FROM RUTGERS.
AND HELPING US IS GREG SMITH. AND CHRIS BARKIN.
SEE IF WE HAVE THE PRESENTATION UP YET. WHILE WE ARE GETTING THE
PRESENTATION GOING I WILL TELL YOU THAT THE PURPOSE OF THIS
PROJECT WAS TO ASSESS THE RISKS OF TRANSPORTING NATURAL —
NATURAL GAS BY SURFACE MODES, BY RAIL AND BY TRUCK.
OVER THE YEARS LNG HAS BEEN SHIPPED BY MARITIME MEANS.
THIS EMERGING TREND IS MORE FOR EMERGING TRANSPORT. MAYBE I NEED TO ACTIVATED ON
THIS END.>>SORRY, HELP IS ON THE WAY.>>OKAY. WHILE WE’RE WAITING FOR THE TECHNICAL DETAILS, I CAN
CONTINUE. TODAY WE ARE TALKING ABOUT THE
BACKGROUND OF NATURAL GAS. TO UNDERSTAND LIQUID NATURAL GAS
YOU HAVE TO UNDERSTAND NATURAL GAS CHARACTERISTICS. TO UNDERSTAND THE FACTORS GOING
INTO THE RISK ASSESSMENT. WE HAVE IDENTIFIED FACTORS
NEEDED TO MITIGATE THE RISKS. WHAT’S INTERESTING ABOUT LNG IS
IT IS ENTRANCED WARDED EVERYWHERE.
HERE IS THE PRESENTATION. AS YOU CAN SEE FROM THE OUTLINE,
FOCUSING ON THE BACKGROUND ABOUT LNG ON THE EMERGING MARKETS
SUPPLY CHAIN ANALYSIS AND SO FORTH.
THAT IS ONE OF THE OLDEST IN THE U.S.
THEY HAVE BEEN IMPORTING LNG AT THAT FACILITY FOR OVER 40 YEARS
AND SAFELY TRANSPORTING LIQUID NATURAL GAS BY TRUCK THROUGHOUT
NEW ENGLAND. NATURAL GAS IS BASICALLY METHANE
THAT HAS NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS ENCASED IN IT. WE HAVE THESE NATURAL GAS
LIQUIDS MIXED IN. TO LIQUEFY YOU HAVE TO TAKE UP THE WATER THE IMPURITIES, THE
NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS AND GET TO THE PUREST FORM OF METHANE IF
YOU CAN. LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS IS
PROPANE AND BUTANE. TOGETHER THESE ARE CALLED
NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS. YOU CAN SEE FROM THIS, THERE HAS
BEEN PROLIFIC PRODUCTION IN THE PAST FIVE YEARS. THERE IS AN OUTPUT IN TEXAS LAST
FALL OF ABOUT ONE BILLION CUBIC FEET PER DAY IN NOVEMBER AND IT
IS ALREADY UP TO 8 BILLION CUBIC FEET PER DAY. THIS IS ANOTHER TREMENDOUS
SOURCE FOR NATURAL GAS. YOU MAY HAVE HEARD THE TERM WET
GAS OR DRY GAS. WET GAS HAS A LOT OF PROPANE, BUTANE AND IT. DRY GAS HAS LESS OF THOSE. LITTLE BIT ABOUT NATURAL GAS.
THE MOST EFFICIENT WAY TO MOVE NATURAL GAS IS IN A PIPELINE. AS YOU LOOK AT THE PERMIAN AND
MARSALIS SHARE — SHALE, THAT IS
WERE THE NATURAL GAS PROCESSING AREAS ARE.
THE BLUE DOTS ARE WHERE THE NATURAL GAS PROCESSING IS CONCENTRATED. THE NATURAL GAS PIPELINE NETWORK IS EXTENSIVE.
IT IS MOST EXTENSIVE IN THE GULF SOUTH AND IT EXTENDS TO THE
WESTERN SEABOARD AND ALL THE WEIGHT EAST. THE AREAS WHERE IT IS NOT SERVED
HIS NEW ENGLAND AND PARTS OF THE MOUNTAIN.
IT IS IN THESE AREAS THAT WE NEED TO FIGURE OUT HOW TO GET
LIQUID NATURAL GAS. YOU CAN GET A LIQUEFIED FORM AND
HEAT IT UP. LIQUEFACTION — REMEMBER THOSE NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS.
THEY ARE USED TO COOL DOWN THE NATURAL GAS.
THE NATURAL GAS TEMPERATURE IS -270 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT. ANYTHING UNDER 100,000 GALLONS
PER DAY — THEY ARE USING THAT REGION.
IF YOU GET UP OVER 250,000 GALLONS PER DAY YOU’LL NEED A
COCKTAIL OF THE NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS.
THOSE ARE USED TO COOL DOWN THE MATERIAL IN THESE TRAINS. YOU MAY HAVE HEARD THE TERM
BEFORE. LNG LIQUEFACTION TRAINS ARE
LITERALLY LONG SERIES OF PIPES AND COMPRESSORS USED TO COOL NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS.
THE SAVING FACILITY IN LOUISIANA, WHICH IS BEING
EXPANDED, HAS FOUR TRAINS BUILT AND FIVE AND SIX ARE UNDER
CONSTRUCTION, SO THAT’S A HUGE FACILITY IN LOUISIANA FOR NOW
EXPORTING NATURAL GAS MORE THAN WE ARE IMPORTING.
WE BECAME A NET EXPORTER IN 2017, AND HERE’S A LITTLE
EXAMPLE OF TWO PLANTS, ONE ON THE SMALL-SCALE AND ONE ON THE
LARGE SCALE. THIS IS THE PLANT THE FLORIDA
EAST COAST RAIL USES TO LIQUEFY UNDER CONTRACT THAT NATURAL GAS FOR LOCOMOTION TO FUEL
LOCOMOTIVES IN FLORIDA AS WELL AS LNG CARGO.
THAT’S ABOUT 100,000 GALLONS A DAY, SMALL-SCALE LNG FACILITY. THE PLAN AT THE BOTTOM IS TO
CONTINUE TO EXPAND THAT PLANT AND BUILD A SISTER FACILITY
NEARBY AND CORPUS CHRISTI AND EVEN MORE, SO THAT IS A BIG
EFFORT. LNG IMPORTS AND EXPORTS —
KOTTER — QATAR IS REALLY THE LEADER IN EXPORTING LNG.
AUSTRALIA COMES IN SECOND AND JAPAN IS THE THIRD-LARGEST EXPERT OR.
THEY’VE BEEN TRANSPORTING NATURAL GAS AND LIQUIDATE —
LIQUID NATURAL GAS FOR YEARS EVER SINCE THE FUKUSHIMA
DISASTER. MALTA IS THE FIRST COUNTRY I
HAVE LEARNED IMPORTING LIQUID NATURAL GAS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN
. IN ANOTHER EXAMPLE, ANOTHER
DEMAND FOR LNG IS THESE EMERGING MARKETS FOR FUEL.
LNG IS USED FOR MINING OPERATIONS.
HIGH HORSEPOWER TRUCKS, THE RAIL OPERATIONS YOU HEARD ABOUT, AND SHIPS ARE USING LNG FOR FUEL . THESE ARE EXAMPLES OF HOW
LNG IS EXPERIENCING INCREASES IN DEMAND, SO WHERE ARE THESE
FACILITIES? MOST ARE AFFILIATED WITH THE
PIPELINE NETWORKS. THEY LITERALLY SHAVE OFF THE
EXCESS NATURAL GAS. THEY COOL IT DOWN AND STORE IT IN THESE FACILITIES MOSTLY A NEW
ENGLAND AND THROUGHOUT THE EAST COAST FOR PEAK DEMAND, AND THE LIQUID NATURAL GAS IS BEEN
GASIFIER FOR USE IN THE WINTER MONTHS. THESE BIG IMPORT/EXPORT
FACILITIES USED TO BE ALL IMPORT
FACILITIES, AND THEY ARE SLOWLY BECOMING EXPORT FACILITIES
BECAUSE WE HAVE MORE NATURAL GAS IN THE U.S. NOW THAN WE KNOW
WHAT TO DO WITH, AND WE ARE BECOMING IT EXPORTER AS OF LAST
YEAR. FINALLY, THESE MERCHANT PLANTS I
MENTIONED — THE FORTRESS PLANT IN MIAMI IS AN EXAMPLE WHERE
THEY CAN SELL LNG ON AN OPEN MARKET. SOME OF THESE SUPPLY-SIDE
FACTORS INCLUDE PRODUCTION AND STORAGE AND THE IMPORT/EXPORT VOLUMES I WAS TELLING YOU ABOUT.
ON THE DEMAND SIDE, LNG BECOMES IMPORTANT IN THE WINTER MONTHS
WHEN A LOT OF THESE HEATING NEEDS ARE REQUIRED.
WE NOW REQUIRE — THE U.S. USES 30% OF ITS HEATING NEEDS OUR NATURAL GAS NOW.
A LOT OF WHAT HAPPENS IN THESE MARKET HUBS, THERE’S A LOT OF
BUYING AND SELLING THROUGHOUT THE YEAR TO TRY TO GET THE BEST
PRICES, AND THIS BOTH SHORT AND LONG-TERM CONTRACTS.
WE ALSO LOOKED AT THE THREE TYPES OF LNG — CRYOGENIC
CONTAINERS — THE THREE TYPES OF LNG CRYOGENIC CONTAINERS.
THE RAIL TANK CAR IS CURRENTLY NOT IN THE U.S. ALLOWED TO SHIP
THIS BY RAIL EXCEPT BY SPECIAL PERMIT, AND THE EARLY EXAMPLES TODAY ARE THE EAST COAST
RAILROAD AND THE ALASKA RAILROAD WHERE LNG HAS BEEN USED IN THE CASE OF FLORIDA AND FOR CARGO.>>AND 2016, WE ALSO RECOGNIZED
THERE’S TRUCK MOVEMENTS TO SUPPLEMENT THOSE PIPELINE
MOVEMENTS. WE AGGREGATED THE VOLUMES
TOGETHER AND USED A GIS TOOL CALLED SHORTAGE PATH DISTANCE TO
DETERMINE WHERE THE LNG GOES. SINCE WE DID NOT KNOW THE EXACT
ORIGIN AND DESTINATION, WE USED STATE CENTROIDS.
THESE ARE EXAMPLES OF VOLUMES OF LIQUID NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTED
BY TRUMP AND 2016 BETWEEN STATES IN THE U.S..
YOU CAN SEE THEY COMPLEMENT THE PIPELINE NETWORK THE CAUSE WHERE
YOU DON’T SEE A PIPELINE, YOU SEE THE DEMAND FOR LNG.
THIS IS A GOOD EXAMPLE OF WHERE
WE LIKELY WILL SEE DEMAND IN THE FUTURE, BY RAIL OR BY TRUCK.
IN NEW ENGLAND, WHICH IS ONE OF THE AREAS OF THE U.S. THAT HAS
THE LEAST PIPELINE NETWORK, THERE IS A TREMENDOUS DEMAND FOR
NATURAL GAS, AND AS A RESULT, LIQUID NATURAL GAS, SO WE DID A
HYPOTHETICAL CASE STUDY BETWEEN PENNSYLVANIA WHERE WE KNOW A LOT
OF NATURAL GAS IS PRODUCED, AND NEW ENGLAND WHERE WE KNOW
THERE’S A LOT OF DEMAND, AND WE LOOK AT BOTH RAIL AND TRUCK SHIPMENTS OVER THIS DISTANCE OF
FIVE TO SEVEN MILES BY RAIL AND 353 MILES BY TRUCK.
AS YOU CAN SEE, USING THE EIA DATA, THERE’S 72 MILLION CUBIC
FEET OF NATURAL GAS THAT WAS TRANSPORTED BY TRUCK
CRYOGENICALLY IN 2016 BETWEEN THESE ORIGINS AND DESTINATIONS.
WE ASKED WHAT THAT WOULD LOOK LIKE, WHAT THE COST WOULD BE,
WITH THE FACTORS WOULD BE, AND IT TURNS OUT THAT THE ISO-TANKS
ARE REALLY THE MOST VERSATILE AND THE FLORIDA EAST COAST RAIL
HAS ALREADY DISCOVERED THIS BECAUSE IT IS A LIFT ON/LIFT OFF
MOVEMENT. YOU DON’T HAVE TO UNLOAD THE
PRODUCTS AT EITHER END, AND IT’S A VERY VERSATILE — AND IT’S
VERY VERSATILE BY RAIL, AND YOU CAN ALSO GO TO AN INTERMODAL
FACILITY AND MOVE IT ONTO A TRUCK IF YOU NEED TO.
THE RAIL MOVEMENT CAME OUT TO BE MORE COST EFFECTIVE.
IT WAS CHEAPER TO MOVE IT BY RAIL, BUT THERE WERE ALSO
INTERCHANGE FEES, AND YOU HAVE COSTS.
THERE COULD BE SOME COMPETING FACTORS.
THIS IS A GOOD EXAMPLE OF HOW LNG MIGHT MOVE BETWEEN THOSE
LOCATIONS. WHAT DO WE DO TO EVALUATE THE
RISK? WE LOOK AT A NUMBER OF DIFFERENT
QUALITATIVE ASSESSMENTS. THERE’S BEEN STUDIES DONE ABOUT
THIS, AND IT HAS BEEN EXTENSIVE WORK OVER THE YEARS IN
DEVELOPING QRS AND MANY DIFFERENT WAYS TO DO IT, BUT THE
BOTTOM LINE IS YOU WANT TO TRY TO UNDERSTAND WHAT THE
INDIVIDUAL RISKS AND SOCIETAL RISKS ARE, AS PER THE NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION. THIS IS ALSO SOMETHING THAT HAS
BEEN STUDIED EXTENSIVELY IN EUROPE AS WELL AS IN THE
NETHERLANDS OVER THE YEARS TO DETERMINE THE HEALTH AND SAFETY
EXECUTIVE, FOR EXAMPLE, HAS SPENT A LOT OF TIME ON THIS.
WE TRY TO CHARACTERIZE IT IN THE FORM OF AN EVENT CHAIN.
AN EVENT CHAIN DIAGRAM IS BASICALLY A PROCESS BY WHICH YOU
HAVE ANY — ANY ONE OF THESE EVENTS COULD BASICALLY PREVENT A
DERAILMENT. WE DO NOT KNOW IF THESE EVENTS OCCUR OR NOT, BUT WE COULD DO
ANALYSIS TO DETERMINE, FOR EXAMPLE, HOW A DERAILMENT IS
LIKELY TO OCCUR. THIS IS OBVIOUSLY HARD TO READ, BUT I CAN READ IT FOR YOU.
FIRST FOUR EVENTS HAVE TO DO WITH THE TRAIN INVOLVED IN A
DERAILMENT, WHICH HAS TO DO WITH
TRACK QUALITY AND THE METHOD OF OPERATION, AND THE DENSITY OF THE TRAFFIC.
THE NUMBER OF CARS DERAILED HAS TO DO WITH THE SPEED AND THE
ACCIDENT COST, AND THE NUMBER OF HAZMAT CARS DERAILED HAS TO DO
WITH THE NUMBER OF HAZMAT CARS AND THE TRAIN AND THEIR
PLACEMENT WITHIN THE TRAIN. ALL THESE FIRST FACTORS HAVE TO
DO WITH HAZMAT AND DERAILMENTS, AND THEN EVENTUALLY, THE RELEASE
OF THAT PRODUCT IN THE HAZMAT RELEASE.
THE FIRST PART OF THE CHAIN IS THE HAZMAT CARS RELEASING
PRODUCTS, AND IN THIS CASE, IT’S
CALLED THE CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY OF RELEASE, AND THAT
IS THE PROBABILITY THAT DURING A HAZMAT DERAILMENT, THAT THAT
PRODUCT WILL RELEASE, AND IT HAS TO DO A LOT ABOUT THE TANK CAR
DESIGN, AS YOU JUST LEARNED FROM MELISSA.
WHEN THAT PRODUCT IS RELEASED AND HOW IT IS RELEASED HAS TO DO
WITH THE LOSS OF CONTAINMENT. IS IT A SMALL HOLE, A LARGE
HOLE? IS ONLY PART OF THE PRODUCT
RELEASED, OR IS THE ENTIRE TANK CAR RELEASED?
THAT HAS TO DO WITH THE LOSS OF CONTAINMENT.
THAT IS SOMETHING THAT IS ALSO MODELED AS WELL AS WITH LNG, IN
ORDER TO HAVE AN INCIDENT, ON THE NEXT BOX IS THE FLAMMABLE
ATMOSPHERE, SO YOU HAVE LNG RELEASING, THIS CRYOGENIC
MATERIAL, IT GASES OFF. HOW DO YOU CREATE A FLAMMABLE
ATMOSPHERE. LNG ONLY IGNITES BETWEEN 5% AND
15%. IT’S A VERY SMALL RANGE , AND YOU
HAVE TO HAVE AN IGNITION SOURCE . AN IGNITION SOURCE IS ANOTHER
PROBABILITY IN THE EVENT CHAIN, AND FINALLY, THE EXPLOSION OF
POPULATION. WHO IS EXPOSED BY THIS EVENT
DATA — WHO IS EXPOSED BY THIS EVENT?
IS IT A POPULATED AREA? IS IT A NON-POPULATED AREA?
THIS IS BASICALLY WHAT WE LOOKED AT AND WALKED THROUGH THIS
PROCESS TO DETERMINE THE FACTORS AND PARAMETERS THAT WOULD BE,
ANY OF WHICH COULD MITIGATE RISKS OF TRANSPORT IF THEY WERE
ELIMINATED. IF YOU ELIMINATE ANY OF THESE
EVENTS IN THE EVENT CHAIN, YOU COULD MITIGATE THAT RISK.
NOT ENTIRELY, BUT YOU COULD GO A LOT FURTHER ALONG.
IN MORE DETAIL, IT IS IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND THESE FACTORS AND
PARAMETERS ARE ALSO COMBINED TOGETHER.
IT IS NOT QUITE A LINEAR PROCESS. IF YOU NOTICE FROM THIS
SCHEMATIC, THE INPUTS FOR A DERAILMENT INCLUDE THINGS LIKE SIGNAL IS ASIAN, FRA, TRACK
CLASS, AND TRAFFIC EXPOSURE. IT HAS BEEN WELL DOCUMENTED IN
RESEARCH THAT THOSE THREE FACTORS TOGETHER ARE IMPORTANT
CONSIDERATIONS TO UNDERSTAND DERAILMENT FREQUENCIES. MANY OF THESE FACTORS HAVE TO
WORK TOGETHER, AND THAT IS THE KIND OF PROBABILISTIC RESEARCH
THAT OUR TEAM HAS DONE IN THEIR RESEARCH AND HOW IT HAS BEEN
DONE OVER THE YEARS. THERE HAS BEEN A LOT OF RAILROAD RESEARCH.
IT IS DIFFERENT FOR RAILROADS THAN IT IS FOR TRUCKS.
I WILL TALK ABOUT THAT A LITTLE BIT LATER.
LNG AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE — THIS IS BASICALLY A REAL
PRIORITY FOR THE NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ADMINISTRATION.
THEY ARE MOVING TOWARD MORE FOCUS ON LNG BECAUSE WE HAVE
MORE MOVING INTO THE U.S. THESE NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS I TALKED ABOUT — PROPANE, BUTANE,
ETHANE — ARE ALSO A FACTOR PROPANE, BUTANE,
ETHANE — ARE ALSO A FACTOR BECAUSE IN THE LIQUEFACTION
PROCESS, YOU HAVE TO MOVE THOSE PRODUCTS TO A LIQUEFACTION
FACILITY, AND THAT IS A CONCERN FOR FIRST RESPONDERS AS WELL.
THERE HAS BEEN A LOT OF TRAINING
DONE, BUT MORE IS ON THE WAY. THESE ARE EXAMPLES IN THIS SLIDE
OF SOME OF THE BEST PRACTICES THAT HAVE BEEN TAUGHT FOR LNG
RESPONSE. WITH REGARD TO TRUCK AND RAIL RISK FACTORS, THEY ARE REALLY
VERY DIFFERENT. TRUCKS HAVE BEEN HISTORICALLY
SHIPPING LNG FOR 40 YEARS WITH VERY LOW CRASH RATES AND LESS
THAN FIVE INCIDENTS IN NEW AND WHEN ALONE WHERE THERE’S BEEN
OVER 300,000 MILES — 300,000 TRIPS OF LNG TRUCK TRIPS, BUT
WHEN YOU LOOK AT TRUCK RISK FACTORS, IT’S MORE CLOSELY
ALIGNED WITH DRIVE IT BE WITH — WITH DRIVER BEHAVIOR.
WE KNOW CONGESTION IS A FACTOR. SPEED IS A FACTOR.
VOLUME, FATIGUE, MEDICATION, SLEEP DISORDERS ARE ALSO THINGS
TIED IN, WHEREAS RAIL RISK FACTORS HOW TO DO MORE WITH THE
METHOD OF OPERATION AND TRAFFIC DENSITY AND LESS ABOUT SOME OF
THOSE OTHER FACTORS. IN SUMMARY, NATURAL GAS IS
CAPTURING A LARGER SHARE OF THE ENERGY MARKET, IT’S CLEAR, AND,
AS I EXPLAINED, LNG COMPLEMENTS THE DISTRIBUTION OF GAS BY
PIPELINE. THERE IS A DEMAND, WE BELIEVE, FOR SHIPPING LNG BY RAIL THAT
CAN COMPLEMENT WHAT IS CURRENTLY BEING DONE BY TRUCK, AND I
MENTIONED SOME OF THESE EMERGING
OPERATIONS ALREADY. LNG GENERALLY HAS A GOOD SAFETY
RECORD WITH A MINIMUM MARITIME FACILITY INCIDENTS RELATIVE TO
OTHER FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS, AND WE HAVE DEVELOPED RISK FACTORS AND
PARAMETERS THAT I BELIEVE WOULD HELP TO EVALUATE THE DERAILMENT AND RELEASE PROBABILITY IN
CERTAIN CORRIDORS. IT IS NOT SOMETHING THAT WILL
HAPPEN THROUGHOUT THE U.S.. I THINK IT SHOULD BE RESTRICTED
TO CERTAIN CORRIDORS, AND THE DEMAND WILL PROBABLY DICTATE
WHERE THAT OCCURS, AND ONCE THE PROBABILITY IS BETTER
UNDERSTOOD, THIS WILL HELP CARRIERS WITH PLACEMENT OF
RAILCARS, WITH CRASHWORTHINESS THAT WE HEARD ABOUT FROM
MELISSA, AND OPERATIONS. SO THAT IS MY PRESENTATION.
THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME, AND HAPPY TO TAKE QUESTIONS.>>THANK YOU, DAVID.>>ANY QUESTIONS?>>THANKS, DAVID. SEVERAL YEARS AGO, AFTER A SMALL
NUMBER OF FAIRLY SPECTACULAR EVENTS, A PERCEPTION EMERGED
THAT UNCONVENTIONAL RAIL IS MORE
HAZARDOUS TRANSPORT THAN CONVENTIONAL AND/OR STABILIZED CRUDE OIL.
INITIAL SPONSORED RESEARCH FUNDED JOINTLY BY THE DEPARTMENT
OF TRANSPORTATION AND THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HIGHLIGHTED
A KNOWLEDGE GAP IN THE SAMPLING AND CHARACTERIZATION AND THE
BEHAVIOR OF CRUDE OIL TO TO ANSWER SOME CONCERNS, THE
DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, AND
TRANSPORT CANADA AGREED TO COLLABORATE ON ADDRESSING SOME
OF THESE KNOWLEDGE GAPS. PLEASE WELCOME DR. DAVID LORD, PROJECT MANAGER FOR THIS
MULTIPHASE STUDY ON CRUDE OIL CHARACTERIZATION. DAVID.>>ALL RIGHT, WELL, THANK YOU FOR GIVING US AN OPPORTUNITY TO SHARE WITH EVERYONE THE STATUS
OF OUR WORK THUS FAR. JUST A QUESTION — ARE YOU GOING
TO ADVANCE SLIDES? OK, SO, THE TITLE OF THE
RESEARCH PROJECT ITSELF IS CALLED CRUDE OIL
CHARACTERIZATION RESEARCH STUDY. WHAT I’M GOING TO TALK TO YOU
TODAY ABOUT IS THE PROGRESS TO DATE ON WHAT WE CALL TASK TO,
ONE OF FOUR TASKS — BASICALLY, THREE TASKS WE ARE CURRENTLY
UNDERTAKING. I WILL NOT TALK MUCH MORE ABOUT
THE TASKS THE ON THREE RIGHT NOW, BUT WE WILL GO OVER SOME OF
THE PROJECT STRUCTURE AND WHAT TASK TWO IS SET UP TO ACHIEVE RELATIVE TO TASK THREE AND
OTHERS. THERE ARE THREE SPONSORING
AGENCIES, AND THEN, THE TECHNICAL TEAM SPECIFIC TO THE
WORK I WILL PRESENT TODAY INCLUDES MYSELF, RAY ALLEN, AN
INDUSTRY OIL AND GAS EXPERT , AND
DAVE OR DEAN, A DATA PROCESSING EQUATION EXPERT.
THE WORK WAS ALSO REVIEWED BY A NUMBER OF INDUSTRY EXPERTS,
INCLUDING DR. BOB FAULKNER, ROBBIE LAND SKIN, AND WE ALSO
HAD TECHNICAL SUPPORT FROM SOME STAFF AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH
DAKOTA EER SEE — EERC. WE WILL TALK ABOUT THE PROBLEM
STATEMENT, AND THEN WHAT WE WERE LOOKING AT IN TERMS OF CRUDE OIL
SAMPLING METHODS, THE RESULTS OF THAT WORK, ONGOING WORK BECAUSE
THIS FALLS INTO A LONGER-TERM PROJECT THEN THE RESULTS THAT ARE AVAILABLE RIGHT NOW, AND
THEN ALSO TALK ABOUT A COUPLE OF
FUTURE RESEARCH AREAS. TODAY’S PRESENTATION IS A
HIGH-LEVEL SUMMARY OF A PUBLIC STAND REPORT. SAND 2017 1242. THIS IS AVAILABLE ON THE
DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
INFORMATION WEBSITE. IF YOU DO A SEARCH ON THAT WORK
NUMBER — A SEARCH ON THAT REPORT NUMBER IN THE TECHNICAL
LIBRARY, THOSE ARE QUICK WAYS TO FIND IT.
THEY ARE NOT THE ONLY WAYS, BUT THEY ARE QUICK WAYS.
WHAT YOU WILL SEE IS MATERIAL EXTRACTED FROM THAT REPORT.
IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO READ THIS MATERIAL AND STUDY IT ON YOUR
OWN KIND OF AT YOUR OWN PACE, PLEASE LOOK THAT REPORT UP.
THE SECOND REPORT I HAVE CITED WAS A LITERATURE SURVEY THAT
ESSENTIALLY OWES OUR INITIAL RESPONSE TO CONCERNS ABOUT WHAT
WE KNOW ABOUT THIS PROBLEM OF CRUDE OIL IN THE DIFFERENCES
BETWEEN CONVENTION, WHAT WE COULD STAND TO LEARN GOING
FORWARD, SO THE LITERATURE SURVEY WAS TRYING TO UNDERSTAND
THE STATE OF KNOWLEDGE AS OF 2015 AND WHAT WE COULD DO TO
HELP INFORM OURSELVES GOING FORWARD.
THE DRIVERS FOR CONDUCTING THIS WORK — I’VE SEEN SOME OF THIS PRESENTED HERE EARLIER TODAY,
BUT CRUDE TRANSPORT BY RAIL POSES RISKS RECOGNIZED BY U.S.
AND CANADIAN REGULATORS AND STAKEHOLDERS.
HAZARDS HAVE BEEN REALIZED IN A NUMBER OF HIGH-PROFILE TRAIN
DERAILMENTS THAT LEAD TO OIL SPILLS, ENVIRONMENTAL
CONTAMINATION, FIRE, PROPERTY DAMAGE, AND THERE IS AN OPEN
DEBATE ON IF THE TYPES OF CRUDE HAVE SIGNIFICANT BEARING ON THE
SEVERITY OF TRANSPORTATION ACCIDENTS. ALSO EMBEDDED, THERE IS
ADDITIONAL UNCERTAINTY AROUND WHICH SAMPLE CAPTURE ANALYSIS
METHODS ARE APPROPRIATE FOR CRUDE OIL THAT COULD INDICATE
POTENTIAL COMBUSTION HAZARD LEVELS IN AN ACCIDENT.
I JUST HAVE A COUPLE OF PHOTOS OF THE NORTH DAKOTA INCIDENT AND
THE AFTERMATH. I’M GOING TO TALK ABOUT THE
PROBLEM STATEMENT FROM THE KIND OF OVERARCHING STUDY AND WE ARE
TO FOCUS AND ON TASK SHEET OF, WHICH ARE THE RESULTS WE WILL
TALK ABOUT TODAY. THE STUDY AS A WHOLE IS TO
EVALUATE IF CREWS CURRENTLY TRANSPORTED IN NORTH AMERICA
EXHIBIT PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROPERTIES THAT ARE DISTINCT
FROM CONVENTIONAL CRUDES AND HOW EACH PROPERTIES ASSOCIATE WITH
COMBUSTION HAZARDS THAT MAY BE REALIZED AND TRANSPORTATION
HANDLING, AND FINDINGS, AS THEY DEVELOP FROM THIS WORK MAY HELP
IMPROVE CRUDE OIL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BY PROVIDING OBJECTIVE
SCIENTIFIC DATA FOR TRANSPORTING HAZARDOUS MATERIALS.
PROJECT STRUCTURE SET UP IN FOUR TASKS, THREE OF WHICH WE ARE
CURRENTLY UNDERTAKING. TASKS 1, 2, AND THREE. AT SOME LEVELS SIMULTANEOUSLY,
BUT THERE’S ALSO A NECESSARY ORDER TO THOSE HEARING A TASK
ONE IS PROJECT ADMIN AND OUTREACH, SO I’M HERE TODAY WITH
AN OUTREACH EFFORT. I’M TALKING ABOUT TASK TWO.
THAT EFFORT IS LOOKING AT SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS METHODS
FOR CRUDE OIL TO MAKE SURE THAT WE ARE TALKING ABOUT THE SAME
METHODS BY WHICH WE CAPTURE AND ANALYZE SAMPLES.
WE SAY THIS OIL HAS PROPERTY A, AND THE OTHER OIL HAS PROPERTY,
SO WE HAVE A NORMALIZED BASIS FOR COMPARING THEM.
TASK THREE IS LARGE-SCALE COMBUSTION EXPERIMENT MODELING.
THAT WORK IS CURRENTLY ONGOING. THEY DO NOT HAVE THE RESULTS OF
THAT. I AM NOT ABLE TO SPEAK TO THAT
CURRENTLY, BUT THAT WORK IS ONGOING. JUST A
LITTLE CLOSER LOOK AT THE TASK TWO OBJECTIVES.
WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF TASK TWO AND WHAT IS THE ROLE?
IT’S UNCLEAR WHICH CRUDE OIL CAPTURE ANALYSIS METHODS ARE
SUITABLE FOR MEASURING VAPOR PRESSURE FOR OILS TO BE COMPARED
IN LATER WORK OR FOR THE PURPOSE
OF CLASSIFICATION AND HAZARD DETERMINATION. THE KNOCK ON TIGHT OILS IS THAT
THEY ARE MORE VOLATILE AND MORE FLAMMABLE.
THAT IS KIND OF THE CONTENTION. WHAT WE ARE TRYING TO DO IS
SCIENTIFICALLY EVALUATE SOME OF THOSE QUESTIONS, BUT WE
RECOGNIZE THE SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS METHODS USED IN THE
INDUSTRY HAVE NOT NECESSARILY BEEN — THERE HAS NOT BEEN
CONSENSUS ON WHICH TO USE, SO HERE WE GO.
THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES OF THIS WORK ARE TWO EXAM IN WHICH COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE METHODS
— AND THAT IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE WE USE COMMERCIAL ANALYSIS
LABORATORIES TO DO THIS WORK — CAN ACCURATELY AND REPRODUCIBLY
CAPTURE, TRANSPORT AND DELIVER HYDROCARBON SAMPLE STASH CRUDE
OIL STASH FROM THE FIELD TO ANALYSIS LAB AND FURTHERMORE,
ANALYZE FOR PROPERTIES RELATED TO COMPOSITION AND VOLATILITY OF
THE OIL INCLUDING VAPOR PRESSURE , DISSOLVED GASES AND LIGHT
HYDROCARBONS, SO THIS IS KIND OF A VOLATILITY-BASED EFFORT.
THE PERFORMANCE WILL BE DIRECTLY COMPARED TO WELL-ESTABLISHED
MOBILE LABORATORY SYSTEM THAT CURRENTLY SERVES AS BASELINE
INSTRUMENT SYSTEM FOR THE U.S. STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE,
CRUDE OIL VAPOR PRESSURE PROGRAM, AND THE METHODS THAT
PERFORM WELL IN TASK TWO WILL BE UTILIZED IN TASKS THREE AND FOUR
GOING FORWARD. KIND OF A LITTLE DEEPER DIVE ON THE APPROACH.
WE WENT OUT AND TALKED TO OPERATORS AROUND THE COUNTRY.
WE FOCUSED IN NORTH DAKOTA AND TEXAS TO TRY TO GET AT LEAST ONE
OIL FROM THE BOSTON REGION AND ONE FROM IT OCCURRED.
WE MANAGED TO FIND A NUMBER OF OPERATORS WHO WERE WILLING TO
WORK WITH US. WE WERE SEEKING SAMPLING FLIGHTS
IN THE DOMESTIC SUPPLY CHAIN TO OBTAIN CONTINUOUS REASONABLY, —
HOMOGENEOUS SAMPLES FOR AFTER THREE SAMPLING DAYS.
WE LOCATED IN OPERATOR WITH A TERMINAL IN NORTH DAKOTA AND AN
OPERATOR WITH A TERMINAL IN THE TEXAS EAGLE FOR THE REGION, AND
WE CAPTURED THE SAMPLES BY AN ASSORTMENT OF OPEN AND CLOSED
INDUSTRY SAMPLING METHODS. WE ARE TREATING THE SAMPLING
METHOD AS AN INDEPENDENT VARIABLE.
WE ARE NOT SO WORRIED ABOUT CHANGING THE OIL.
IN FACT, WE ARE TRYING TO NORMALIZE THE OIL ACROSS A
SAMPLING PERIOD AND CHANGE THE SAMPLING METHODS.
SAMPLING METHOD IS INDEPENDENT VARIABLE.
WE ALSO ARE MEASURING THOSE SAMPLES WITH AN ASSORTMENT OF
INDICES STANDARD ANALYSIS METHODS, SO WE ARE TREATING THE ANALYSIS METHOD AS AN
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE, AND THIS ENDS UP TILTING A SIZABLE
EXPERIMENTAL MATRIX. WE WILL WORK THROUGH SOME OF THE
PRIMARY FINDINGS FROM THIS EFFORT.
THEN WE COMPARE THE ANALYTICAL RESULTS ACROSS SAMPLING METHODS,
ANALYSIS METHODS, AND LABORATORIES, AND WE ARE
COMPARING THESE TWO OF BASELINE GOLD STANDARD.
WE’VE BEEN CALLING IT A FLASH SEPARATOR SYSTEM THAT CURRENTLY
SERVES AT LEAST 1995 THROUGH PRESENT AS THE PRIMARY TOOL WE
USE TO ANALYZE CRUDE OIL’S’ VAPOR PRESSURE AT THE U.S.
PETROLEUM RESERVE. MY HISTORY PRIOR TO JOINING THIS
PROJECT IS WORKING DIRECTLY WITH THE VAPOR PRESSURE PROGRAM AT
THE U.S. PETROLEUM RESERVE, SO WE HAD A METHODOLOGY AND
BASELINE FOR HOW WE WERE DEALING WITH OILS THAT EXHIBITED
VOLATILITY , SO WE UTILIZED THESE
ESTABLISHED METHODS ON OUR BASELINE TO COMPARE THESE OTHER COMMERCIAL METHODS.
THE PLAN IS TO MOVE FORWARD ON TASK THREE AND FOUR WITH METHODS
FOUND TO GIVE ACCEPTABLE PERFORMANCE AND CONSISTENCY. I WILL DIVE INTO SOME SAMPLING
METHODS. NOT SOME SCREENSHOTS HERE. ONE OF THE THINGS PEOPLE ARE
LOOKING AT BEGS THE QUESTION OF OPEN VERSUS CLOSED SAMPLING
METHODS, HOW THEY PERFORM IN THIS WORLD, PARTICULARLY WHEN
YOU’RE INTERESTED IN OILS THAT EXHIBIT A LEVEL OF VOLATILITY.
CLOSE METHODS INCLUDE WHAT WE CALL A TIGHT LINE TO AN ON-SITE TEST OPERATOR.
YOU SEE A TRUCK WHERE WE BRING THE ANALYSIS LAB TO THE SAMPLING
LOCATION. WE HAVE A MINIMAL HANDLING, AND THAT IS THE SAME WAY IN WHICH
ASKED THAT IS THE GOLD STANDARD BASELINE SYSTEM WE HAVE USED
THAT THE SPR FOR 25 YEARS. WE UTILIZE CLOSE METHODS IN
WHICH YOU HAVE SOME SORT OF PHYSICAL BARRIER BETWEEN THE OIL
AND ATMOSPHERE SO THAT YOU DON’T — THE IDEA IS THAT YOU HAVE NO
NET MASS EXCHANGE WHEN YOU ARE DOING THE SAMPLING SO YOU DO NOT
AIR CONTAMINATE. THEN THERE IS THE OPEN METHOD,
THE BOTTLE SAMPLE, AND WE FILLED
THOSE UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS, AND WE ALSO TRANSFERRED SOME OF
THOSE TWO CYLINDERS BECAUSE SOME
OF THE ANALYSIS METHODS REQUIRE A POSITIVE PRESSURE PUSH, SO WE
NEED TO TRANSFER THOSE INTO A CLOSED CYLINDER.
THIS IS AN OVERVIEW OF ANALYSIS METHODS — HOW AM I DOING ON
TIME?>>YOU HAVE ABOUT 15 MINUTES.>>OK.
WHEN WE ARE AT THE ANALYSIS METHODS, THAT IS THE SECOND
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE AXIS WE’RE TALKING ABOUT.
WHAT I’VE HIGHLIGHTED BOX HERE IN RED IS THE BASELINE SEPARATOR
SYSTEMS, SO THIS IS WHAT WE ARE COMPARING EVERYTHING TO.
THIS BASELINE SEPARATOR SYSTEM HAS A MEANS TO TAKE A SINGLE PHASE COMPRESSED LIQUID STREAM,
FLASH IT OUT INTO A LABOR PHASE AND VAPOR PHASE.
IT A GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY SHOT OF THE GAS COMING OFF THE TOP, AND
WE PUSH THAT INTO AN EQUATION OF STATE WHEN WE KNOW HOW THE
OPERATOR GOT THE FLASH SEPARATOR OPERATING AT OPTIMAL CONDITIONS .
WE HAVE A DIRECT MEASURE OF THE BUBBLE POINT PRESSURE AND A
DIRECT MEASURE OF THE VOLUMETRIC GAS OIL RATIO THAT COMES OFF OF
THAT SYSTEM, SO IT IS A SORT OF SELF-CONTAINED SYSTEM, BUT IT
TAKES ABOUT EIGHT HOURS TOGETHER ALL THIS DATA, AND IT IS,
FRANKLY, EXPENSIVE TO OPERATE. WE CALLING IT THE BASELINE.
IT GIVES US THE HIGHEST QUALITY DATA.
FRANKLY, IT IS EXPENSIVE AND TIME-CONSUMING TO OPERATE. BUT IT SERVES AS OUR BASELINE.
IF WE HAD NO OTHER OPTIONS, WE PROBABLY WOULD HAVE USED THAT
FOR TASK THREE IN OUR COMBUSTION
STUDIES, BUT PART OF WHAT WE WANTED TO DO WAS OPEN UP THE
POSSIBILITY OF USING OTHER COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE METHODS
THAT ARE PRESUMABLY EASIER AND LESS EXPENSIVE GOING FORWARD,
AND IT GIVES US MORE OPTIONS THAN JUST THIS SOLE-SOURCE.
WE WANTED TO MEASURE VAPOR PRESSURE, A PISTON CYLINDER OPERATED DEVICE. YOU HOLD OR RESIST THE MOVEMENT.
SET THE VAPOR TO LIQUID RATIO, AND MAKE A PRESSURE PUSH HER, AND WE CONTROL THE VAPOR LIQUID
RATIOS FROM 2% AND SELECT THE TEMPERATURES.
THEN WE ALSO ANALYZED OUTPUTS OF FLUID FOR PRESSURIZED
COMPETITION. WE HAVE THEM IDENTIFIED HERE AS
TEST METHOD ONE, TEST METHOD THREE. THEY ALL INVOLVE SOME METHOD AND
A NUMERICAL MERGE. THEY ARE LABOR-INTENSIVE, BUT THEY ARE NOT QUITE AS
LABOR-INTENSIVE AND EQUIPMENT INTENSIVE. ALL THESE OTHER OPTIONS THAT ARE
NOT BASELINE ARE ESSENTIALLY TAKING THE SAMPLE TO THE LAB
JUST TO KIND OF GIFT BASIC CHARACTERIZATIONS.
THE KIND OF THINGS WE WOULD NORMALLY USED TO IDENTIFY CRUDE
OIL’S FROM A QUALITY STANDPOINT . I’M NOT HERE TO FOCUS ON THE
SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THEM, BUT I’M LOOKING AT THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE
SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS METHODS, SO I ASK YOU TO FOCUS ON THOSE
DIFFERENCES AS WE MOVE FORWARD. WHAT I HAVE HERE IS A PLOT. APPARENTLY THE FONT I USED IS A
BIT TOO SMALL, BUT THESE ARE BAR CHARTS THAT SHOW — THAT’S
PROBABLY NOT GOING TO SHOW. THE BAR CHARTS SHOW VAPOR
PRESSURE . YOU HAVE INCREMENTS UP TO 41
VAPOR LIQUID RATIOS, AND THEY ARE COLOR CODED BY SAMPLING
METHOD. THE BLACK IS THE PIPELINE — I CANNOT READ IT ALL THAT WELL.
THE BLACK IS THE AVERAGE AND ALL
THE CLOSE, AND THE GREEN OR OVERWRITE, AND ESSENTIALLY WHAT
WE ARE SHOWING IS LOW VAPOR RATIOS.
CRUDE OIL IS A LOCAL COMPONENT SYSTEM, AND THE LARGER VAPOR
SPACE YOU IMPLEMENT OVER THAT, THE LOWER VAPOR PRESSURE YOU
WILL MEASURE. A SINGLE COMPONENT SYSTEM, YOU
JUST HAVE. PENTANE. THAT PART WAS EXPECTED.
WHAT WE FOUND WAS INTERESTING HERE, THOUGH, NOT ENTIRELY
UNEXPECTED, BUT KIND OF A BASIC PHYSICS, THAT BOTH SAMPLES
APPEAR TO HAVE BEEN EQUILIBRATED WITH ELSEWHERE IN THE TRANSPORT SYSTEM.
I PUT THEM ON THE LINE TO TELL YOU WHAT LOCAL ATMOSPHERIC
PRESSURE WAS. WHAT WE FOUND IN THIS EFFORT WAS
THAT THE 20% EXPANSION RATIO CORRELATED PRETTY WELL WITH THE BOW POINT PRESSURE, AND IT WAS PRETTY DARN CLOSE TO LOCAL
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE, SO THESE OILS, WHERE WE PICKED THEM UP
AND SUPPLY CHAIN WERE PRETTY MUCH EQUILIBRATED WITH
ATMOSPHERE. WHAT I WOULD GO WITH THE IMPLICATION HERE IS THAT THE
VAPOR PRESSURE OF CRUDE OIL WILL LIKELY REFLECT LOCAL AMBIENT
CONDITIONS . ESSENTIALLY THE SAME DATA, BUT
NOW I’M LOOKING AT DIFFERENT FEATURES.
I’M LOOKING AT THE SAMPLING METHODS, ESPECIALLY COMPARING
OUT AT THE HIGHER VAPOR TO LIQUID RATIOS.
COLORS REPRESENT OPEN VERSUS CLOSED SAMPLING, AND WHAT IT’S
REALLY SAYING IS THAT FOR THESE SAMPLES, IN THE MEASURE VAPOR PRESSURE AT THOSE VAPOR LIQUID
RATIOS, FUNCTION VERSUS OPEN — FUNCTION OF OPEN VERSUS CLOSED
SAMPLING. THAT IS SPECIFIC TO THE HIGHER
VAPOR LIQUID RATIOS. LET’S MOVE ON THEN.
WE ARE GOING TO MOVE DOWN NOW TO THE LEFT. THE SAMPLING METHODS THAT WERE
NOT EQUILIBRATED, IT IS SOMEWHAT
VISIBLE IN THESE SLIDES. WHAT I WANT TO HIGHLIGHT IS THAT
THE SAMPLES THAT WERE MEASURED IN UNPRESSURIZED CONTAINER AND
THEN BASICALLY PUT ON THE LAB BENCH TOP AND DRAWN BY VACUUM —
THIS IS HOW THESE INSTRUMENTS TYPICALLY OPERATE — IS IF YOU
ARE DRAWING FROM AN ATMOSPHERIC BOTTLE, IT WILL REALLY DRAW I A
VACUUM, THE OIL, UP THROUGH A SAMPLING TUBE AND INTO THE
CHAMBER. IF YOU COMPARE THAT, WHICH IS
THE BLUE DESK DID IT COME OUT AS BLUE THERE — IF YOU COMPARE
THOSE BLUE BARS TO EVERYTHING ELSE, THEY ARE MEASURABLY LOWER THAN THE OTHERS, AND WHAT THIS
INDICATES IS, NUMBER ONE, THAT SOMEHOW THE BOSTON ROUND IS
DISTINCTION ITSELF, BUT UPON A CLOSER LOOK AT THE DATA AND TALK
WITH THE OPERATORS, WHAT WE BELIEVE IS HAPPENING IS WHEN
THEY PULL THAT SAMPLE AND BY VACUUM AND THIS OIL HAS BEEN,
YOU KNOW, NOMINALLY ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE, VAPOR PRESSURE, YOU
ARE SUCKING BUBBLES, ALMOST LIKE
IMAGINING YOUR KID DRAWING A SODA INTO YOUR MOUTH YOU ARE
JOINING THAT TWO-PHASE MIXTURE, I THINK WE ARE DRAWING A
TWO-PHASE MIXTURE INTO YOUR THE PCR INSTRUMENT, AND YOUR
STARTING POINT IS NOT A V O VER L OF ZERO. THE REAL INTERESTING COMPARISON
IS THE BLUE BAR VERSUS THE GREEN ONE TO THE RIGHT.
ALTERNATIVELY, THEY TOOK A BOSTON ROUND BOTTLE.
THEY DREW IT INTO THE MANUAL PISTON CYLINDER.
CAN YOU GUARANTEE THAT IT DID NOT FLASH ON THE WAY IN?
NO, BUT THEY DO IT VERY SLOWLY AND CHILL IT TO 32 DEGREES. THEY PUT POSITIVE PRESSURE ON
THE BACK. THEY ARE PUSHING THAT MATERIAL INTO THE INSTRUMENT, SO FOR THE
SAME PARENT MATERIAL, PRESUMABLY PULLED IN WITH THE BOSTON ROUND
AND PUSHED INTO THE INSTRUMENT VERSUS PULLED INTO THE
INSTRUMENT — I KNOW THESE ARE RELATIVE TERMS AND YOU NEED A
PRESSURE DIFFERENCE, BUT IN TERMS OF GAUGE PRESSURE , PULLING
RATHER THAN PUSHING, THIS SAYS IF YOU PULL THE — THIS NEARLY
ONE ATMOSPHERIC VAPOR PRESSURE INTO THE OIL, YOU WILL BUY US
YOUR VAPOR PRESSURE AS WELL. ANALYSIS CONDITIONS ARE AN ISSUE
AS WELL, BUT THE APPLICATION HERE IS THAT THE VAPOR PRESSURE
SAMPLE ACQUISITION HANDLING WILL
REQUIRE A HIGHER LEVEL OF RIGOR THAN THE V OVER L OF GREATER THAN ONE. THERE’S ALSO A LOT OF
UNCERTAINTY. WE LOOK AT THE SIZE OF THE ERROR
BARS OF THOSE LOW VAPOR LIQUID RATIOS.
THERE ARE A NUMBER OF POTENTIAL REASONS. ALL OF THEM SHOWED HIGH
STANDARD DEVIATIONS AND FOR REDUCING THE
— POOR REPRODUCIBILITY. I DID NOT BRING COMPOSITIONAL
DATA IN ANY GREAT DETAIL, BUT THE POINT IS THAT WE SAW
ASSOCIATED WITH THOSE ERROR BARS, SIMILAR SAMPLE TO SAMPLE
DIFFERENCES IN NITROGEN AND OXYGEN.
BUT THE HYDROCARBON BASELINE WAS PRETTY CONSTANT.
WHAT WE THINK IS GOING ON IS THAT SOMEWHERE IN THE SAMPLE
HANDLING AND LABORATORY ANALYSIS, I THINK THESE SAMPLES
ARE INGESTING FIXED GASES, AND THOSE ARE SHOWING — THE IMPLICATION IS THAT CURRENT
CAPABILITIES AS DEMONSTRATED IN THE STUDY FOR MANAGING VAPOR
PRESSURE OR CRUDE OR NOT SIGNIFICANT ENOUGH IN OUR EYES
PRODUCE RELIABLE PROPERTY MEASUREMENT.
AND OUR DATA, THAT 20% V OVER L WAS THE LOWEST WE WERE CONFIDENT
WORKING UNDER. I THINK THERE ARE THINGS WE CAN
DO ABOUT THIS. THIS IS THE COMPOSITIONAL DATA,
AND ALL WE WANT TO DO IS SHOW YOU, IF YOU LOOK AT THE TOP PLOT
WAY OVER ON THE LEFT, THAT IS THE SAMPLE, ONE OF THE BIGGEST
PLAYERS IN VAPOR PRESSURE. THE POINT IS YOU DO NOT NEED
MANY MOLECULES OF NITROGEN TO CREATE THOSE TYPES OF VAPOR
PRESSURE, AND YOU SEE THOSE HUGE
SAMPLE TO SAMPLE VARIANCES, BUT LOOK AT THE LOWER PLOT.
THOSE ARE ALL THE HYDROCARBONS, SO THE BIG SAMPLE TO SAMPLE
DIFFERENCES ARE LARGELY IN NITROGEN, SO THAT IS WHAT OUR
CONCERN HERE IS, THE QUALITY CONTROL MANAGING THE NITROGEN IN
THESE SAMPLES IS WHERE THE SAMPLE TO SAMPLE DIFFERENCES
ARE. WHAT WE DID LEARN IS THAT MOST OF THE COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE
COMPOSITIONAL ANALYSIS METHODS OVERLAY IT FAIRLY WELL, SO IN
SPITE OF HAVING ISSUES WITH THE SAMPLE TO SAMPLE VARIANCES, THE
TEST METHODS, THE VARIOUS GC /GOR
COMBINATIONS ALL GAVE PRETTY SIMILAR OUTPUTS, SO THERE ARE
SEVERAL COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE OPTIONS FOR MEASURING
COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE HYDROGEN. THESE ALL COMPARED WELL WITH THEIR BASELINE CLASS SEPARATOR
APPROACH AND THE REQUIRED SAMPLE
WERE GENERALLY LOWER THAN WITH THE BIG FLASH SEPARATOR SYSTEM
TAKING YOUR SAMPLE TO THE LAB WAS CHEAPER THAN TAKING YOUR LAB
TO THE SAMPLE TYPICALLY. IN REVIEW, WE FOUND THERE WERE A
NUMBER OF VIABLE OPTIONS TO ACCURATELY DETERMINE VAPOR
PRESSURE. THERE ARE ISSUES OF
REPRODUCIBILITY, AND THEY APPEAR
TO BE RELATED, WHICH COULD POTENTIALLY BE MITIGATED WITH
IMPROVED SPOT SAMPLING. LATER PHASES WILL PRIMARILY USED
CLOSED METHODS. SINCE PERFORMANCE OF THE
PRESSURIZED COMPOSITIONAL METHODS ARE DEEMED ACCEPTABLE
RELATIVE TO ONE ANOTHER, FACTORS SUCH AS COST AND AVAILABILITY,
WHICH IS NOT PART OF THE SCIENTIFIC WORK, WILL INFLUENCE
SELECTION GOING FORWARD. THERE IS ONGOING WORK, SO THE
NEXT TIME WE COME AND TALK TO YOU FOLKS, WE PLAN ON TALKING
ABOUT A REVISION TO THIS PARTICULAR STUDY, WHICH INCLUDES
ADDITIONAL COMPOSITIONAL ANALYSIS.
WE HAD TWO OR COMPOSITIONAL METHODS AND TWO MORE
COMPOSITIONAL METHODS TO SEE THE
WINTER VERSUS SUMMER EFFECTS, AND ALSO THE PUNCHLINE TO ALL OF
THIS IS THE COMBUSTION STUDIES. WE HAVE CRUDE OIL’S REPRESENTING
A MEASURABLE RANGE, AND I CAN ASSURE THAT WE HAVE A MEASURABLE
DIFFERENCE IN VAPOR PRESSURES. THESE OILS ARE NOW GOING INTO
POOL FIRE AND FIREBALL EXPERIMENTS TO DETERMINE IF THEY
RESULT IN MEASURABLE DIFFERENCES
IN COMBUSTION PROPERTIES, WHICH IS REALLY THE COMBUSTION —
REALLY THE PUNCHLINE OF WHAT WE’RE LOOKING AT.
WORK IS BEING INCORPORATED INTO INDUSTRY STANDARDS, AND THERE’S
SOME FUTURE RESEARCH AREAS WE ARE THINKING ABOUT.
WE WOULD LIKE TO IMPROVE REPRODUCIBILITY AND REDUCE THOSE
ERROR BARS IF WE CAN, AND I THINK WE NEED TO ISOLATE SAMPLE
HANDLING, IF WE CAN. WE WANT TO REDUCE THE FREQUENCY
AND MAGNITUDE OF INTRODUCING INERT GASES IN THESE SAMPLES AND
CREATE LAB SAMPLES DIFFERENT FROM A PARENT MATERIAL.
WE ALSO WANT TO LOOK MORE CLOSELY AT THE VIABILITY OF THIS
VIEW PCR OF 20% OR SIMILAR TO BUBBLE POINT PRESSURE, AND THE
OTHER THING, QUESTION THAT I ALWAYS GET AND I ASK MYSELF IS
WHERE IN THE SUPPLY CHAIN DOES THIS OPEN VERSUS CLOSED SAMPLING
REALLY DOES NOT MATTER. WE PICK ONE POINT IN A CONTINUUM
IN EACH OF THESE CASES, AND AN INDUSTRY AND REGULATORY
INTERESTS, WHERE DOES OPEN VERSUS CLOSED MATTER?
THIS STUDY WAS NOT DESIGNED TO FINE-TUNE WHEN THAT IS, BUT I
HAVE HEARD A LOT OF INTEREST IN THAT, SO ANOTHER AREA WE COULD
LOOK INTO TO MOVE FORWARD. PROJECT CONTACTS, AND THAT IS
IT.>>THANK YOU, DAVE.
SINCE WE ARE RUNNING A LITTLE BIT BEHIND TIME, IF YOU HAVE ANY
QUESTIONS, PLEASE RESERVE THEM TO THE END. THANK YOU.
[APPLAUSE] I HOPE YOU GET THE SENSE THAT
THE DATA THAT DAVID’S STUDY PRODUCED IS INVALUABLE TO THE
REGULATORS AND TO THE INDUSTRY SO THAT WE CAN ALL BE MEASURING
THE PROPERTIES OF CRUDE OIL ON THE SAME BASIS AND THAT WE ARE
NOT COMPARING APPLES TO ORANGES, BUT — AND I THINK HE HAS SHOWN
THAT HIS WORK HAS ENLIGHTENED ALL OF US IN TERMS OF THE
POTENTIAL INTERFERENCES THAT WE CAN HAVE IN THE COLLECTION.
NEXT UP, WE HAVE [INDISCERNIBLE]
TO PRESENT HAZARDOUS WASTE CHARACTER UP TECHNOLOGY THEY
HAVE DEVELOPED. THIS POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH IS
FOCUSED ON DEVELOPMENTAL AND INNOVATIVE PLATFORM. HE HAS 11 YEARS WITH R&D
EXPERIENCE. HIS RESEARCH HAS BEEN RECOGNIZED
WITH AN R&D 100 AWARD AND FEATURED IN SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN , AND MATERIALS TODAY.
HE HAS A PHD IN APPLIED PHYSICS FROM HARVARD AND APPLIED PHYSICS
AND METHODICAL PHYSICS FROM WATERLOO. PLEASE WELCOME. [APPLAUSE]>>THANKS FOR THE INTRODUCTION AND FOR HAVING US HERE.
WE ARE GOING TO TALK ABOUT A PROJECT WE HAVE BEEN WORKING ON
COLLABORATIVELY TO BUILD BETTER METHODS TO CLASSIFY HAZARDS OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS OUT IN THE
FIELD AND WE ARE REALLY FOCUSED ON THE HAZARDOUS WASTE INDUSTRY
WHERE YOU CAN HAVE ALL KINDS OF THINGS COMING INTO A DEPOT OVER
A SHORT PERIOD OF TIME AND VERY, VERY LIMITED STAFFING TO BE ABLE
TO ASSESS WHAT THE RISKS ARE AND TO TAKE THE PROPER ROUTING AND TREATING METHODS AS A RESULT.
THIS IS THE BASIC OUTLINE OF WHAT THE MANDATE OF THE PROJECT
IS, SO WE WANT TO DEVELOP SOME KIND OF USER-FRIENDLY LOW-COST
DIAGNOSTIC DEVICE SO YOU CAN RAPIDLY CLASSIFY HAZARDOUS
LIQUIDS IN THE FIELD. IT CAN BE USED BY WASTE HANDLERS
AND METAL USED BY INSPECTORS. THE REAL KEY, FOR THOSE OF YOU WHO HAVE BEEN TO ONE OF THESE
HAZARDOUS WASTE THE POSE, IS THAT IT REALLY NEEDS TO BE
REQUIRING NO TRAINING AND BE REALLY EASY TO USE — FOR THOSE
OF YOU HAVE BEEN TO ONE OF THESE HAZARDOUS WASTE DEPOTS. THIS IS THE CONCEPT BASICALLY OF
HOW THE DEVICE WORKS. HARDWARE IS QUITE SIMPLE.
WE ARE TRYING TO DESIGN THIS WITH ALL — OPTIMAL METHODS SO
YOU HAVE A USER INTERFACE, A CAMERA, AND BASICALLY A JAR THAT
HAS A BUNCH OF SENSORS IN IT. THE SENSORS ARE TRANSLATING A
BUNCH OF PROPERTIES OF THE LIQUID INTO SOME KIND OF VISUAL
RESPONSE, AND THEN YOU ARE GOING TO USE A COMPUTER VISION READOUT
AND ANALYTICS AND AI TO DEDUCE HAZARD PROPERTIES FROM THAT.
THIS IS KIND OF A STARTING POINT.
THESE ARE EXAMPLES OF THE KIND OF HAZARDS THAT YOU WANT TO KNOW
IN A HAZARDOUS WASTE DEPOT THAT YOU MAY WANT TO CLASSIFY, AND I
HAVE COLOR-CODED THEM BASED ON WHAT YOU COULD EASILY ASSESS
RIGHT NOW WITH SOME KIND OF QUICK VISUAL TEST.
NOTICE THAT IS THE ONE IN GREEN. WHAT YOU CAN FEASIBLY IMAGINE
BEING ABLE TO DO WITH A SIMPLE VISUAL TEST — THOSE ARE THE
ONES IN YELLOW — AND THE ONES IN RED ARE ONES THAT GENERALLY REQUIRE MORE SOPHISTICATED
EQUIPMENT THAT YOU MIGHT NOT HAVE ACCESS TO IN THESE KIND OF
WASTE HAULING SITUATIONS. THE UPSHOT IS MANY OF THESE ARE
HARD TO MEASURE IN THE FIELD. OUR RESEARCH PROJECT HAS TWO MAIN PRONGS TO IT.
ONE IS HOW YOU CAN TAKE THINGS THAT MIGHT BE EASY TO MEASURE AND THEN USE A COMBINATION OF
MODELING AND LARGE DATABASES TO PREDICT OTHER PROPERTIES THAT
YOU MIGHT WANT TO KNOW HAVE SOME KIND OF MIXTURE THAT MIGHT BE
RELEVANT FOR HAZARDS. THE SECOND PIECE IS WHAT NEW
PROPERTIES WE MIGHT BE ABLE TO MEASURE WITH THESE TESTS THAT WE
CANNOT MEASURE TODAY. THOSE COULD BE DIRECT MEASURES
OF SOME KIND OF HAZARD RELATED PROPERTY THAT YOU MAY WANT TO
KNOW. THEY COULD ALSO BE INDIRECT
MEASUREMENTS, WHICH MEANS — AND IN FACT, MOST OF THE ONES WE
WILL PRESENT OUR MEASURES OF SOMETHING COMPLETELY DIFFERENT
THAT TURN OUT TO CORRELATE IN A PRODUCTIVE WAY WITH HAZARDS THAT
YOU MIGHT WANT TO CLASSIFY. WE’RE GOING TO START WITH JUST A
LITTLE BIT OF HOW WE GO ABOUT DOING THIS PRODUCTION.
THE FIRST THING WE WENT ABOUT DOING WAS TO BUILD A LARGE LIBRARY OF CHEMICAL PROPERTIES. YOU KIND OF KNOW THE TOTALITY OF
WHAT COULD BE IN THE SUPPLY CHAIN. IF YOU HAVE A REGION WHERE
THERE’S NO LNG PAUSE OR HIGH CORROSIVES BEING TRANSPORTED,
YOU CAN USE THAT INFORMATION TO ADD INTO YOUR ANALYSIS OF THE
UNKNOWN THAT IS NOW SPILLED ON THE ROAD OR UNIDENTIFIED. WE BUILT A LIBRARY OF CHEMICAL
PROPERTIES, WE SCRAPED THESE FROM A NUMBER OF PUBLIC SOURCES.
BASICALLY EVERYTHING THAT HAS EVER BEEN SOLD COMMERCIALLY.
IT HAS A LOT OF INTERESTING PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
THAT HAVE BEEN MEASURED RELIABLY.
THERE’S A NUMBER OF OTHER AGENCIES THAT ALSO HAVE THESE LARGE LIBRARIES OF PROPERTIES AS
WELL AS MANUFACTURERS OF ANYTHING YOU CAN BUY
, SO WHAT WE DID IS WE TAKE THESE — THIS
DATABASE AND WE COMBINE THIS WITH MODELS OF WHAT YOU CAN GET — HOW YOU CAN PREDICT WHAT THE
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MIXTURES OF THESE COMPONENTS MIGHT BE.
SOME OF THESE ARE EQUATIONS OF STATE, SOME OF THEM ARE MORE
SIMPLE. THE GOAL IS TO IDENTIFY WAS SIMPLE MEASUREMENTS — WHAT
PROPERTIES MIGHT BE REALLY EASY TO MEASURE MIGHT CORRELATE WITH
PROPERTIES THAT YOU MIGHT — THAT MIGHT BE REALLY HARD TO
MEASURE. IT TURNS OUT FOR MANY SUBSTANCES
AVAILABLE COMMERCIALLY, YOU HAVE A HIGH CORRELATION BETWEEN THE
HEAT VALUE, WHICH IS VERY IMPORTANT IN HAZARDOUS WASTE HANDLING, AND THE REFRACTIVE
INDEX, WHICH IS PLAUSIBLY MUCH EASIER TO MEASURE IN GOING INTO
THE FIELD. AS WE BUILD OUT THESE MODELS,
THE GOAL IS TO ADD SPECIFICITY THROUGH COMBINATIONS OF
MEASUREMENTS. THE SECOND PIECE OF IT IS WHAT
NEW PROPERTIES CAN BE MEASURED OR ARE SOMETHING ELSE THAT
CORRELATES WELL WITH HAZARDS THAT ARE RELEVANT TO — SORRY, PROPERTIES RELEVANT TO HAZARD
ASSESSMENT. ONE OF THE AREAS WHERE YOU CAN
DO THIS, WHICH WE WILL TALK ABOUT REALLY IS HOW YOU CAN TURN
SERVICE INTERACTIONS INTO VISUAL PATTERNS.
THIS IS AN EXAMPLE. THIS IS WORK WE DID A WHILE AGO
WHEN I WAS STILL AT HARVARD, WHERE JUST BY PATTERNING THE
SERVICE TENSION ON THE SURFACE, YOU COULD HAVE IT IMMERSED IN A
LIQUID SHOW YOU REALLY SELF-EVIDENTLY DIFFERENT
PATTERNS IN DIFFERENT VERY CLOSELY RELATED LIQUIDS.
SO HOW DOES THIS WORK? BASICALLY, WE ARE CONTROLLING IT
IN A VERY SPECIFIC WAY. YOU CREATE A PIECE OF GLASS THAT
HAS A LOT OF HOLES IN IT, AND THESE HOLES ARE BOTH THE RIGHT LENGTH SCALE THAT YOU GET STRONG
SCATTERING OF VISIBLE LIGHT, SO YOU GET AN IRIDESCENCE, BUT THEY
ARE ALSO THE SAME SIZE AND SHAPE, TO A VERY HIGH DEGREE OF
ACCURACY. WHAT THIS MEANS IS THAT IF YOU
LOOK AT — SAY YOU HAD AN INDIVIDUAL TUBE OR A CAVITY, AND
YOU TRY TO PUT LIQUID INTO THAT CAVITY, THE LIQUID IS GOING TO — GOING TO ONLY IMBIBE INTO THE
CAVITY IF IT CAN OVERCOME THE CRITICAL BARRIER OF SERVICE
ENERGIES. IN THIS PARTICULAR GEOMETRY, IT
TURNS OUT THAT BASICALLY THE CONTACT ANGLE BETWEEN THE LIQUID
IN THE SILICA HAS TO BE SMALLER THAN THE POOR OPENINGS, OTHERWISE THE LIQUID GETS PINNED
. THAT CREATES A VERY SPECIFIC THRESHOLD SERVICE TENSION —
SURFACE TENSION. WHAT IS INTERESTING IS THIS
HAPPENS NOW ON A MACRO SCALE WHERE YOU MAKE A SMALL CHANGE IN
SURFACE TENSION OR THE SPECIFIC INTERACTIONS BETWEEN WHATEVER
YOU PUT ON THE SURFACE AND THE LIQUID AND GET A REALLY LARGE
MACROSCOPIC CHANGE THAT YOU CAN JUST SEE WITH YOUR EYES.
FOR EXAMPLE, IN THE SLIDE OVER THERE, YOU ADD 5% ETHANOL TO AN ETHANOL WATER MIXTURE, AND YOU
GET A COMPLETE MACROSCOPIC CHANGE OF BEHAVIOR.
WHAT YOU DO THEN IS IF YOU WANT TO ADD MORE FUNCTIONALITY AND A BUNCH OF DIFFERENT RESPONSES,
YOU CAN PUT A BUNCH OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF CHEMISTRIES ON THAT
SURFACE, AND YOU GET THESE PATTERNS TO APPEAR.
BASICALLY, DIFFERENT LIQUIDS ARE GOING ACROSS THAT THRESHOLD, SO
YOU WILL END UP WITH LITTLE BARCODES THAT TELL YOU A LOT
ABOUT THE SERVICE — SURFACE INTERACTIONS OF THE LIQUIDS.
WHAT CAN YOU DO WITH SOMETHING LIKE THIS THAT CAN GIVE YOU
INTERESTING INFORMATION ABOUT HAZARDS?
IT TURNS OUT FOR A LARGE CLASS OF LIQUIDS, SURFACE TENSION
ACTUALLY HAS A REASONABLY STRONG CORRELATION WITH FLASHPOINT.
THIS MAKES SENSE, RIGHT? BECAUSE SURFACE TENSION IS A
MEASURE — YOU CAN THINK ABOUT IT AS HOW STRONGLY MOLECULES ARE
BONDED TOGETHER, AND THE LESS STRONGLY THEY ARE BONDED
TOGETHER, THE MORE LIKELY THEY ARE TO BE VOLATILE.
WERE LIKELY THEY ARE TO BE VOLATILE, AND ONE LIKELY THEY
ARE TO BE FLAMMABLE. IT’S ALL PRETTY REASONABLE.
THE NEXT THING WE DID WAS WE BUILT — WE ASK OURSELVES IF WE COULD SET IT UP SO YOU BASICALLY
HIT THIS THRESHOLD FOR ANYTHING THAT WOULD BE CLASSIFIED AS A
FLAMMABLE LIQUID. THE OTHER DAY, WE FOUND ONE THAT
WORKS RELATIVELY WELL ON MOST CLASSES OF LIQUIDS EXCEPT FOR
VERY STRONGLY HALOGENATED ORGANICS.
SO WHAT WE DID IS WE ADDED A SECOND — WE ADDED ONE MORE
INDICATOR WITH A SECOND FUNCTIONALITY THAT REALLY LIKED
HALOGENATED ORGANICS, AND THEN, THE COMBINATION OF THOSE TWO
BECOMES A VERY SIMPLE INDICATOR THAT CAN PREDICT THE
FLAMMABILITY OF A HAZARDOUS WASTE SAMPLE.
HOW THE READOUT WORKS IS WHAT YOU CAN SEE IN THE PICTURE. IT’S FLAMMABLE IF ONE SHOWS
COLOR AND ONE DOES NOT. IT IS NOT IF THEY BOTH SHOW
COLOR OR NEITHER DOES. ONLY GIVES YOU A FALSE POSITIVE
ABOUT 20% OF THE TIME. THAT IS KIND OF THE STARTING
POINT APPROVAL CONCEPT FOR THIS APPROACH.
YOU CAN MAKE THESE THINGS MORE COLLOCATED.
YOU CAN CONTINUOUSLY GRADE THE SERVICE PROPERTIES AND THEN DO
COMBINATORIAL MEASUREMENTS TO ACTUALLY PREDICT MORE
COMPLICATED CHEMICAL PROPERTIES, AND SO WE HAVE BEGUN TO ADD
THESE MORE COMPLICATED READOUTS INTO THE ANALYTICS MODEL.>>THANK YOU, IAN.
I WILL TRY TO BE SLIGHTLY QUICKER.
IN ADDITION TO WHAT IAN HAS PRESENTED, WE ALSO WANTED TO
EMPLOY ADDITIONAL SENSING CAPABILITIES TO TEST VOLATILE
COMPOUNDS, AND I’M SHOWING AN EXAMPLE OF A SYSTEM THAT GAVE US
A LOT OF INSPIRATION FOR CREATING ANALOGOUS SENSOR.
YOU SEE AN OLD FACTORY SYSTEM WHICH RELIES ON TWO KEY
CONCEPTS. YOU GO THROUGH THE TURBINATES
AND REACH THE OLFACTORY BULB, AND THEN THEY NEED TO DIFFUSE
THROUGH A VERY THICK LAYER TO FINALLY REACH THE RECEPTORS,
WHICH THEN WILL BE ANALYZED BY THE NEURAL NETWORK.
THIS IS A BEAUTIFUL SYSTEM OF TWO COMPLEMENTARY CONCEPTS WE
WANTED TO LITERALLY MINNICK IN THE LAB.
IN ADDITION TO WHAT IAN HAS DESCRIBED, WE WANTED TO THROW
EVEN MORE TOOLS AND ADD ANOTHER MULTI-BARRIER SENSING CAPABILITY
WHERE ONE SENSING MATERIAL CAN PRODUCE ENOUGH READOUTS TO GET
RICH DATA THAT WILL ENABLE HIGHLY SENSITIVE AND HIGHLY
SELECTED SENSING. FOR THIS PURPOSE, WE ACTUALLY
NEEDED TO ADD AN ADDITIONAL SENSING COMPONENT TO WHAT IAN HAS DESCRIBED BECAUSE THE
VOLATILE SYSTEM DEFINITELY NEEDS A CONCEPT OF VAPOR ABSORPTION.
YOU SEE THAT THESE SITES WOULD
NOT BE SUFFICIENT TO ACTUALLY CONDENSE THE PAPER ANALYZED. WE ADDED ANOTHER SENSING ELEMENT
ONTO THE HEADSPACE OF THE SENSOR ON THE JAR THAT IAN HAS
PRESENTED IN THE BEGINNING OF HIS TALK, AND THIS SENSOR HAS AN
AVERAGE SIZE OF JUNE OF TWO TO 50 NANOMETERS, AND THE VAPOR
MOLECULES THAT APPROVES THIS POINT RESPONDS AT A VERY THIN
MONOLAYER AND FINALLY CONDENSES INTO THE POROUS NETWORK OF THIS
MATERIAL, AND IN ORDER TO BE ABLE TO USE IT, WE NEEDED TO
CHANGE ALSO THE SENSING ARCHITECTURE, WHICH IS NOW A
MULTILAYER MATERIAL BASED ON NANO PARTICLE LAYERS WITH HIGH
AND LOW INDEX CONTRAST, AND A GREAT EXAMPLE IN THE NATURE THAT
YOU CAN FIND FOR THIS MATERIAL CAN BE SEEN IN SQUIDS, CREATURES
THAT CAN CHANGE COLOR ON THE ORDER OF SECONDS FROM IN THE BROAD RANGE OF WAVELENGTHS, SO
WE IMPLEMENTED THIS LAYER IN ORDER TO ENABLE VOLATILE
COMPOUND SENSING. WE ALSO STARTED OUT, COMING BACK
TO THAT INSPIRATION, WE NEEDED TO ENABLE SPATIAL TEMPORAL
APPROACH, WHERE WE ENABLE IN A SENSE A SYSTEM VERY SIMILAR TO
CHROMATOGRAPHY DETECTION OF ANALYTES.
WE INJECT THE ANALYTE IN THE SYSTEM AND LET IT MOVE OR WHAT
THE SURFACE DEPENDING ON THE PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROPERTIES,
AND IN ORDER TO FINALLY EVAPORATE AND THROUGH CONVECTIVE
AND DIFFUSIVE FLOWS OR THROUGH MASS TRANSPORT PHENOMENA TO
REACH THE SENSOR AND ABSORB INTO SMALL PORT THAT WE HAVE DESIGNED
AND CHANGE THE COLOR OF THE TECTONIC MATERIAL.
YOU CAN SEE A TYPICAL RESPONSE OF THE CENTER THAT WE ACQUIRED DURING 10 TO 20 MINUTES,
DEPENDING ON THE ANALYZED, AND WE GET A TWO-DIMENSIONAL COLOR
MAP THAT ALLOWS US TO IDENTIFY ALL THESE COMPOUNDS.
IN THIS SLIDE, I WOULD LIKE TO COMPOUND THE END WE ACTUALLY USE
IT AS AN INITIAL DATA SET THAT WE REDUCE IN ORDER TO SAVE COMPUTATIONAL EXPENSES AND WE
PROCESSED THROUGH MATHEMATICAL METHODS BY CHECKING THE TRANSFORM AND CALCULATING THE
DERIVATIVE, AND WE ACTUALLY USE THAT DERIVATIVE AS THE FEATURE
OF THE DATA SET THAT WE HAVE MEASURED.
WE SEE THESE FEATURES OR FEATURE
BECK — WE FEED THESE FEATURES OR FEATURE VECTORS INTO THE
MACHINE FRAMEWORK WE CREATED THAT ACCOMPLISH THE
CLASSIFICATION AND PREDICTION MODELS OR REGRESSION MODELS IN
ORDER TO BE ABLE TO DO COMPOSITIONAL ANALYSIS OF OUR
VOLATILE LIQUIDS THAT WERE TESTED.
YOU CAN SEE THE EXAMPLE OF — A NUMBER OF DERIVATIVES THAT WERE
FED INTO CLASSIFICATION DATA PIPELINE WHERE WE NEED TO OF
COURSE NORMALIZE THE DATA AND CREATE — WE USE TRICKS OR FUNCTIONS IN ORDER TO BE ABLE TO
PROCESS HIGHLY NONLINEAR DATA, SO THE KEY BEAUTY OF THE SENSOR
WE HAVE OBTAINED IS THAT IT ALLOWS HIGHLY SELECTED SENSING OF THE COMPOUNDS, AND WE EXTRACT
THE PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS OF THE METRICS THAT WE CALCULATED IN
ORDER TO FINALLY FEED IT TO ITS SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE, WHICH IS
A VERY POWERFUL TOOL OR NONLINEAR DATA SETS.
YOU CAN SEE THE SET THAT WAS INITIALLY VIRTUALLY NON-DISCERNIBLE, YOU CAN
PROJECTED INTO MULTI- DIMENSIONAL SPACE AND CUT TWO
DIFFERENT DATA SETS FROM EACH OTHER BY USING
THE ALGORITHM OF SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE
, AND YOU CAN SEE THAT WE WERE ABLE TO DISCRIMINATE WITH
JUST ONE SENSOR A LARGE NUMBER OF VOLATILE COMPONENTS WITH
VARIOUS PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES, POLAR VERSUS
NONPOLAR AND OTHER ONES. WE ALSO USED MACHINE LEARNING
METHODS TO ENABLE THE PREDICTION OF COMPOSITION COMPOUNDS, AND
YOU CAN SEE THAT WE HAVE THEN ABLE TO SUCCESSFULLY
DISCRIMINATE A MIXTURE OF COMPONENTS WITH DIFFERENT
FLASHPOINTS SUCH AS PENTANE AND OCTANE OR 1010 AND HEXANE, WHICH
ARE VERY SIMILAR COMPOUNDS, AND DIFFICULT TO DISCRIMINATE, BUT
WITH OUR SENSOR, WE WERE ABLE TO MODEL WITH VERY HIGH
SIGNIFICANCE THAT ENABLED THE PREDICTION OF AND DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS.
ONCE WE OBTAINED A RICH LIBRARY,
MULTIDIMENSIONAL LIBRARY OF ANALYTES, WE INDEED CAN DO ALL
THESE SUPERVISED LEARNING METHODS THROUGH CLASSIFICATION
AND PRODUCTION, BUT WHAT IF THE NEW COMPOUND BEING TESTED DOES
NOT BELONG TO THE DATA LIBRARY? IS THERE A POSSIBILITY TO
ACTUALLY PREDICT THOSE PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND
HAZARD LEVELS THAT NUMEROUS SPEAKERS BEFORE ME HAVE
HIGHLIGHTED? AT THE MOMENT, WE ARE FOCUSING
ALL OUR EFFORTS TO BUILD ENOUGH — A DATA LIBRARY LARGE ENOUGH
AND CORRELATE THAT LIBRARY WITH KEY PHYSICAL PROPERTIES THAT
WILL BE ABLE TO TELL A LOT ABOUT THE HAZARD LEVEL.>>JUST PULLING IT BACK TOGETHER
SO THAT YOU HAVE THE MAIN CONCEPT WHERE YOU ARE TRYING TO
MAKE AS MANY OPTIMAL MEASUREMENTS AS YOU CAN AND USE
THAT TO RAPIDLY PREDICT HAZARD PROPERTIES, SO YOU ARE PUTTING
YOUR LIQUID IN THIS JAR. YOU HAVE THE ABILITY TO PUT
SENSORS THAT ARE SAMPLING THE LIQUID IN THE LIQUID PHASE, YOU
ALSO HAVE SENSORS ON THE LID THAT ARE EVENTUALLY SAMPLING THE
HEADSPACE, AND THEN YOU CAN THINK ABOUT — ONE WAY TO THINK
ABOUT SENSING DISCUSSED WHERE
YOU ARE PUSHING YOUR SAMPLE THROUGH A LONG COLUMN OF POROUS
GAS, YOU HAVE A VERY THIN FORM OF POROUS GLASS, AND YOU ARE
LOOKING AT THE DIFFERENTIAL TIMESCALE THAT IT TAKES,
DIFFERENT COMPONENTS TO ABSORB, AND YOU CAN SEE THAT IN THE
COLOR SIGNATURE AS YOU ANALYZE IT OVER TIME.
PULLING ALL THESE THINGS TOGETHER, IF WE START WITH THIS
KIND OF CHEAT SHEET OF THE POSSIBLE PROPERTIES WE MIGHT
WANT TO CARE ABOUT, WHAT WE CAN DO TODAY EASILY, WHAT WE CAN
CONCEIVABLY DO TODAY WITH A BIT OF EFFORT AND WHAT WILL BE
HARDER FOR US TO DO, THIS IS MORE OR LESS WHERE WE ARE IN THE
PROJECT NOW. WE HAVE EXPANDED THE NUMBER OF
THINGS WE THINK YOU CAN DEFINITELY DO TODAY BY ADDING
THE ANALYTICS-BASED MODEL WITH THIS LARGE LIBRARY OF PUBLIC
DATA AS WELL AS OUR OWN SENSOR DATA AND SINGLE MEASUREMENTS
LIKE REFLECTIVE INDEX AND THESE COLORIMETRIC MEASUREMENTS THAT
CORRELATE WITH SERVICE TENSION, AND WE THINK — WE ARE HOPEFUL WE ALSO WILL BE ABLE TO WITH
EXISTING TECHNIQUES AND BETTER ANALYTICS, SAW HOW THAT HAS BEEN DONE IS THROUGH A
COMBINATION OF FINDING NEW WAYS TO MEASURE
THINGS THAT WERE BEFORE DIFFICULT THROUGH AN ESSENTIAL TAKING A PROCESS AND TURNING IT
INTO A TIME-BASED RESPONSE. HOW COULD YOU THEN DEVELOP
ALGORITHMS BASED ON WHAT YOU KNOW ABOUT ABOUT PREVIOUS
MEASUREMENTS IN THE PROPERTIES OF CHEMICALS, IN ADDITION TO
WHAT YOU KNOW ABOUT SUPPLY CHAINS AND WHAT YOU KNOW ABOUT
WHAT POSSIBLY COULD BE OUT THERE TO BE ABLE TO GET MORE ACCURATE
MEASUREMENTS OR PREDICTIONS. THANK YOU FOR TAKING THE TIME TO
LISTEN. I THINK WE WENT A LITTLE OVER.>>THANK YOU. ANY QUESTIONS?>>A QUESTION OF ON THE LAST
PRESENTATION. TWO QUESTIONS — ONE IS, IN THE LATTER HALF, THERE WAS
DISCUSSION ABOUT THE VAPOR MEASUREMENTS.
I NOTICED IT LOOKED LIKE IT WAS HEAVIER ONES ASSESSED IN YOUR
EXAMPLE. I AM WONDERING HOW IT DEALS WITH
DISSOLVED GASES? THE SECOND QUESTION, HAS ANY
VALIDATION BEEN DONE AGAINST ACTUAL CHARACTERIZED SAMPLES
FROM GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY TO VALIDATE THE RESULTS.>>THANK YOU.
I THANK YOU PINPOINTED ONE KEY ASPECT THAT WE ARE ALSO FOCUSING
ON. WE ARE TRYING TO BUILD A CAPABILITY OF SENSING A
NONCOMPENSABLE GAS INTO THE PORES OF THE MATERIALS.
WE ALSO DEVELOPED ELECTRONIC CENTERS SUCH AS NANA GENERATORS
THAT ARE ABLE TO RESPOND TO LIGHTER COMPONENTS.
IN TERMS OF, IF I CORRECTLY UNDERSTAND, ARE YOU ASKING
WHETHER THE — DID I UNDERSTAND,
WHAT WE ARE TRYING TO ACTUALLY CHARACTERIZE IS THE WASTE
SAMPLES COMING FROM THE FACILITY?
AND DESCRIBE THEIR COMPOSITIONAL ANALYSIS COMPARED TO STANDARD
METHODS?>>HAVE THERE BEEN ANY
VALIDATIONS AGAINST SORT OF A WELL-CHARACTERIZED MIXTURE?
WHERE YOU HAVE DONE SOME GAS, TALK AND COMPARED AGAINST YOUR
RESULTS? MAINLY FOR THE LATTER HALF OF
THE PRESENTATION FOR THE COMPOSITIONAL WRITE-DOWN —
BREAKDOWN?>>THE TWO THINGS I WOULD SAY —
FIRST, BECAUSE THE WHOLE SYSTEM IS SET UP FOR A WASTE DEPOT, IT
IS THERE MUCH LIKE THE SAMPLES COMING OUT OF ATMOSPHERIC TANKS
IN THE PRESENTATION THAT WE HAVE
NOT LOOKED AT THE LIGHT AND — ENDS.
TO MY KNOWLEDGE SO FAR ALL OF THE EXPERIMENTS WE HAVE DONE
HAVE BEEN WITH SYNTHETIC, WHICH MEANS THAT WE VALIDATE THEM
AGAINST WHAT WE MADE.>>I THINK THIS IS AT THE MOMENT AN ACADEMIC SETTING.
WE HAVE ACCESS ONLY TO COME AWAY
TRY TO CHARACTERIZE THE CRUDE OIL SAMPLES FROM THE DEPARTMENT
OF TRANSPORTATION AND WE ENDED UP HAVING SIGNIFICANT ISSUES
WITH SAMPLING. THE ACTUAL CRUDE OILS THAT WERE BROUGHT TO US IN VAPORIZED
CYLINDERS WERE IMPOSSIBLE TO CHARACTERIZE DUE TO INSUFFICIENT
LAB FACILITIES. I THINK WE ENDED HAVING HUGE
DEVIATIONS IN CHARACTERIZING THOSE CRUDE OIL SAMPLES.
UP TO NOW I WAS MAINLY FOCUSING AND CHARACTERIZING A SYNTHETIC
MIXTURES WITH WELL-KNOWN CONCENTRATIONS.>>IF THERE ARE NO OTHER
QUESTIONS — ARE THERE ANY FOR DAVID?>>THANK YOU FOR ATTENDING.
THAT CONCLUDES OUR SESSION. I THINK WE HAVE A FEW WORDS
ABOUT TOMORROW.>>JUST ABOUT HALF AN HOUR WORTH OF CLOSING COMMENTS.
NO, I JUST WANTED TO THANK ALL OF THE PRESENTATIONS, THE
PRESENTERS, EVERYONE THAT HELPED.
I’M GOING TO GO HOME AND STAY UP ALL MY THINKING ABOUT THIS.
ALSO A SPONSOR OF A LOT OF THE RESEARCH I AM HAPPY THE WAY I
SAW THE PRESENTATIONS. I THOUGHT, WOW, THEY ARE FARTHER
ALONG THAN THEY — THAN I THOUGHT. I AM HAPPY TO SEE THAT.
TOMORROW WE WILL BE IN SMALL GROUPS. WE
HAVE ALL OF THE ROOMS THAT WE CAME IN.
IF YOU WANT TO PARTICIPATE, IF YOU ARE ON A WEBCAST AND YOU
WANT TO PARTICIPATE BY PHONE LOOK AT PAGE TWO OF THE AGENDA
WHICH IS TOMORROW’S. THEY POINTED THIS OUT TO ME, THE
CALL IN NUMBER IS PRINTED ON THE AGENDA.
I DID NOT SEE IT, SO MAYBE I JUST DID NOT SEE IT. WE WILL BE ON A GROUP CALL.
WE WILL NOT WEBCAST TOMORROW. WE ARE NOT GOING TO DO FOUR OR
FIVE DIFFERENT FEEDS. IF YOU THINK OF THINGS AGAIN,
ANYTIME YOU HAVE A RESEARCH NEED OR A THOUGHT, FEEL FREE TO SEND
IT TO ME. OR IF YOU WANT TO — SEND THOSE ALONG.
THAT CLOSES IT UP UNLESS THERE ARE QUESTIONS ABOUT TOMORROW.
IT STARTS AGAIN IN 8:30 SMART MORNING.
WE WILL TALK MORE IN THE FOYER AND BRANCH OUT.
WE WILL HAVE OPENING COMMENTS. DEPUTY ADDENDA STRAIGHT OR DREW
PEARCE WILL BE IN TOMORROW — DEPUTY ADMINISTRATOR DREW PEARCE
WILL BE IN TOMORROW. WITH THAT, UNLESS THERE ARE
QUESTIONS, YOU CAN COME UP AND TALK TO THE PEOPLE OR WE WILL
SEE YOU TOMORROW MORNING. THANK YOU VERY MUCH.

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