How to Make an Attractive City

How to Make an Attractive City

Cities are a big deal: we pretty much all have to live in them; We should try hard to get them right. So few cities are nice; very, very few out of many thousands are really beautiful. Embarrassingly, the more appealing ones tend to be old, which is weird because we’re mostly much better at making things now: cars, planes, or phones. Why not, then, cities? It’s crazy to settle for this and to leave something so important to chance. We need to get more scientific and identify the principles that determine how a city gets to be pretty or ugly. It’s not a mystery why we like some cities so much better than others. This is a manifesto about how to make attractive cities. There are six fundamental things a city needs to get right. 1. Not too chaotic; Not too ordered One of the things we really love in cities is order. Order means balance, symmetry and repetition; it means the same thing happening again and again, and the left side matching the right side. Order is one of the reasons so many people love Paris. But most cities are a complete mess. When it’s a mess, it seems like no one is in charge. And that’s worrying. It’s horrible when everything is jumbled up. A pitched roof next to a flat roof, a stark geometrical box next to a muddled car park, high rise towers that look as if they’ve been placed at random, like teeth in a gaping mouth. We generally have an itch to straighten things out, and when we can’t, it’s frustrating. The same urge is there when we look at cities. Often, it’s not skyscrapers that we mind in the city, it’s skyscrapers that have been dumped without planning, like they are increasingly in London, whereas New York or Chicago shows the ordered way that we love. However, you have to keep something else in mind: excessive order can be just as much of a problem. Too much regularity can be soul destroying. Too much order feels rigid and alien. It can be bleak, relentless, and harsh. So the ideal we’re seeking is variety and order. This is the idea in a square in Telč in the Czech Republic: where every house is the same width and height but within that ordered pattern, every house has been allowed freedom at the level of form and colour or in Java-eiland in Amsterdam where the pattern is quite strict: each house has the same height and width, the color range is restricted, but within this grid, each unit is completely individual. We’re perfectly in the middle between chaos and boringness here. And that’s what humans adore. That’s what more and more cities should have: order and variety. So as a general rule: too much mess, and it’s off putting, but too much simple order, and it’s boring. What we crave it’s organized complexity which you can see as much here: as here: Now, for the second thing that makes cities beautiful: they have to have visible life. There are streets that are dead and streets that are alive and in general, we crave the live ones. This is a live street in Hong Kong. This is a live scene in Venice. In the 18th century, the painter Canaletto specialized in pictures of cities everyone loved because they’re full of life. There’s always plenty going on. In this painting we can see a stonemason’s yard. The work sheds are rough, but they’re charming. It’s fascinating to see what people are up to. How do they load those huge blocks onto the gondolas? The life of the city is on display, and we’re primed to love this. Contrast this with dead streets of many modern cities. Today, the places where a lot of the work gets done look dull and dead. They’re spaced out along huge highways, and you never go there unless you happen to work there yourself because there’s nothing to see. And most office buildings are brutally anonymous; the people inside might be working
in all sorts of fascinating stuff, but we just don’t know, and it’s disorienting and cold. The street levels are dead. Contrast this with the streets we all love, where you can see things going on: a bakery, a cobbler’s shop, and markets selling carpets, a burger bar, a bookshop; these are streets we love because they’re full of life. More and more, in modern cities, we’ve hidden life away. We have lots of dead sheds, and dead towers, connected up by dead motorways where you can barely glimpse your fellow humans. Rather than the old alleyways
where you can see people at work, look them in the eye as they walk down the road and feel connected to others. Modern planners have become obessed by hiding technology rather than trying to make it nice to look at. Today we’de be outraged if we heard a huge pipeline was gonna be slapped across a lovely river; we’d be up in arms! But we book trips to go and see the Roman Pont du Gard in southern France. That’s because it’s built for beauty and practicality. We think it’s the pipe we hate. It’s not. It’s just the ugliness. So let’s make sure our streets are full of life, full of people doing stuff you can see through the windows. That’s what make certain cities
so attractive to walk along: the work is on show, the people are proud of what they’re doing and happy to let the world notice and appreciate the practical side of things. There’s a third principle of good cities: They are compact. In the past, being able to be alone or just with your partner or family, was at first, a huge achievement. Only the largest class, the poor, lived huddled together and it was horrid. As soon as people had money,
they wanted to move out, and have their own plots. Through the later decades of 20th century, more and more people tucked themselves away in a private realm. And it’s been a disaster. It’s become deadly, cold, and boring, and very, very wasteful on the environment. A compact city like Barcelona swallows a fraction of the energy of a sprawling one like Phoenix, in Arizona. We’ve built a world of endless dead dormitory suburbs connected by sterile wide motorways all because we labor under the false impression that we want to be far away from other people. But in fact it’s wonderful to have the balancing moderating influence of living close to other people in uplifting surroundings. That’s why we need tightly packed, well-ordered cities with lots of squares in public places in which we can hang out. All the most beautiful compact cities have squares. Yet, the art of the square has gone into terrible decline. We keep promoting the invention of mobile phones, but no one’s built a good square anywhere on this planet for decades. It’s not rocket science though. Look at the Piazza di Santa Maria in Trastevere, Rome. It’s a public place, but intimate and closed enough to feel like an extension of your home. Lounging about here, having a coffee or a beer, reading a paper, you get to be around other people, their moderating, cheering affect is restoring. It takes you away from the over intense, couple obsessed atmosphere of the home. There’s an art to a good square: it should be neither too big nor too small, anything over 30 meters in diameter starts become too large by which we mean: the individual become overly small relative to the space around them, creating a sense of alienation and dislocation. In a good square you should be able to see the face of a person across the square, You could if need be hail someone walking on the other side. The ideal square must offer a feeling of containment, but not claustrophobia. There’s another principle of good cities to do with orientation and mystery. By definition, cities are huge, but the cities that a lot of people love also have lots of little back streets and small lanes where you can feel cozy and get a bit lost. We’re drawn to the sense of mystery and enclosure that these streets offer. It’s actually lovely to get a bit lost. A warren of alleyways can feel homely and intimate. At Cartagena, in Colombia, the balconies nearly touch across the street- you can see your neighbors having breakfast, you know when they’ve gone to bed, what time the children do their homework on a Sunday evening. The fact that everyone is little bit on display a lot of the time tends to make people nicer. They don’t shout at each other quite so much. They put flowers on the table more often. We like it, but we forget that we do, and we don’t quite know how to ask for it. Modern planners and developers give us maximum privacy because they suppose that’s what we all want, and because they insist that cars and lorries, which like a lot more space than people, are the most important things in the world. Of course we need balance between small streets and big ones. Necessarily, cities are large. We love small streets, but they’re a nightmare when you have to go any distance. So the ideal is to have big boulevards, grand, wide straight places, and also little warrens of streets. We need cities that offer us two important pleasures: the pleasures of mystery and the pleasures of orientation. Let’s think about scale now. Modern cities are all about big things. Joseph Campbell once wrote: “If you want to see what a society really believes in, look at what the biggest buildings on the horizon are dedicated to”. The biggest most prominent things tell us about the actual, rather than admitted priorities of a society. We don’t collectively say we worship
sports shoe corporations, tax specialists, the oil industry, and pharmaceuticals. Our cities, however, tell another story. They’re full of enormous towers devoted to just these things. That is a bit depressing. As humans, we don’t mind things being big, per se, we don’t mind being humbled, so long as the things we are bowing to deserve homage, like a beautiful mosque, or a cathedral, or a museum. But we’ve allowed our cities to be hijacked by aggressive commercial interests, by towers that honor not God, or love, or humanity, but pizza corporations and hedge funds. They exist because we’ve made a big dumb collective mistake: we focused on who owns land, but we don’t think about who owns space, who has air rights. And in the end, who has air rights determines what you can see from your window. We suggest that the ideal height for any city block is five stories high. No more. Above that people start to feel small, insignificant, and trivial. So we say: cut down those towers and pack everything into five stories. Make it dense, compact, and tight, like they do in some parts of Berlin, Amsterdam, London, and Paris, the bits we love. Of course, occasionally there can be a huge building, but let’s keep it for something really special, something all of humanity can love. Towers have to be worthy of their prominence, they must be aligned with our best ambitions and long-term needs. Finally, make it local. Somethings should be the same everywhere. We don’t expect there to be a uniquely Venezuelan telephone or a distinctively Icelandic bicycle. But, we don’t want buildings to look the same everywhere. It’s hugely disappointing when you fly somewhere for hours, land, and feel you could be anywhere. The problem isn’t just that we like a bit of variation for it’s own sake; because of climate, history and social traditions, each society really does have different needs, different strengths and weaknesses. There are many distinct styles of happiness; many good and varied ways of conductive and collective life. The sameness of cities is a problem because it reveals how far each of us must be from engaging with an specific character of it’s own place. It’s like wearing the same clothes in all climates, or speaking exactly the same way irrespective of who you’re talking to. Cities need to have strong characters connected to the use of distinctive local materials and forms. The pale sandstone, of Millbrae Crescent in Glasgow’s south side, is a local material, A medium grained, carboniferous, blond sandstone- formed when the Scottish landmass lay near the equator. Or around Cambridge, brick from the local yellowish gault clay is a major traditional material. Or think of the way the great Australian architect, Glenn Murcutt, found ways to put up buildings that reflected the distinctive character Australian life. So the law should be: don’t make your city from buildings that could be just anywhere; find a style of architecture that reflects what makes your location specific. The obstacles to building beautiful cities and not economic. Collectively, we’ve got enough money. We face two main problems: firstly, an intellectual confusion around beauty, and secondly, lack of political will. The intellectual confusion is: we think no one has a right to say what’s beautiful and what’s ugly; we get worried about who decides; we think beauty is subjective, so surely no one should say anything about it. It’s a very understandable qualm, but it’s horribly useful to greedy property developers. It’s such a relief to these people to learn that there is no such thing as beauty; it means they can get away with murder. We may not agree to the very last point about what a beautiful city is, but we know an ugly one when we see it. No one’s ever willingly taken holiday in Frankfurt-on-Main or Birmingham, and there are good reasons for this to do with an objective sense of beauty. So let’s stop being dangerously relativistic about this. Yes! There is such a thing as beauty. Sydney and San Francisco and Bath and Bordeaux have it and most other places don’t. The proof lies in the tourist statistics. Let’s not just say that beauty is in the eye of the beholder; that’s just a gift to the next wealthy idiot who wants to put up a horrible tower. The other obstacle is a lack of political will. We’ve abandoned the design of cities to the greedy rich. We’ve given up believing in democracy. We’ve faced and have lost the battle between the public good and commercial opportunism. There will always be a greedy, slick lobby fighting for ugly development, but we can say no. Beautiful cities have only ever been created when governments impose strict and ambitious regulations to keep the greedy, private guys in check. Think of Edinburgh’s amazing New Town, which only got of the ground because the government established clear rules to keep developers in check. They were precise legislation detailing heights for buildings, quality of finish, the width of pavements, and a character of the skyline. That’s the only way you get beauty. They didn’t leave it to the free market. Do that, and you will have chaos. When governments give up on beauty, people start to hate all building. We become collectively despondent. We think we hate all building, and that we can’t create beautiful places We get obsessed by restorations and opposed to anything new, which is wrong because we need places to live. Humanity hasn’t put up a single beautiful city since about 1905. When Venice was built, no one regretted the lagoons that had been swallowed up. The goal of building, should be to put up things that don’t leave us regretting the nature that’s been lost because the architecture is every bit the equal of the designs of nature. We can create more beautiful cities, but we have to confront opportunistic developers and our own intellectual confusions. Governments can only create beauty if they have enough public backing. Political will is ultimately about what all of us, the electorate, are asking for. That’s why we made this film and hope to awaken you to your power as citizens to help legislate for beautiful cities in the future These are the six rules. Now, it’s time to fight to put them in action.

100 thoughts on “How to Make an Attractive City

  1. Why do you call the rich 'greedy'? Most of them just do not know how to make it better or are bound onto the principle of profit maximation. We suppose that if all enterprises that build a city worked together, they could actually create a space in which their employees are more productive and in which consumers are more willing to spend money. The only lack is a lack of ideas and initiative. Also, it is very questionable if it is our collective task to fund politics that build better cities. States could fund themselves as well by doing business, as they have a clear advantage in the free market. Your advice about how to make cities more attractive is really good but open your mind to possible advantages of economic development.

  2. Come on man, we all recognize this hair… and it's on display when you talk 'beauty'. Come on!

  3. San Francisco is actually ugly and their population is shrinking too.. it’s the bridge people come to see… San Francisco has a lot of unbalance too. Grand Rapids city Michigan USA on the other hand is ranked number one in economy and 2 Nd fastest growing population in America. Yet their skyscrapers are fairly equally spaced apart, clean, lot of downtown entertainment and public spaces and diverse as well.

  4. See video of Grand Rapids city Michigan USA!!. This is now ranked the number city to live well in in America. Economy ranked number one in America too and 2nd fastest growing population. See the city skyscrapers and skyline and green spaces too? All balanced with brick roads, diversity, green spaces, artsy etc Any thoughts?

  5. Who own's Manhattan? A: The Banks! The same applies to any city. Money is not one commodity – MONEY IS ALL COMMODITIES. As long as private corporations (known as 'BANKS') are allowed to create money in the form of privately-issued DEBT – and take ownership of it, we are all going to be poor i.e. struggling with regular debt-repayments. This also applies to the non-banking corporations who build the dominant buildings in our cities. That being the case, they will try to cut the costs (reducing their debt burden) by cheap lego-block design.  
    See movie: Money as Debt; Also book: 'Social Humanism' by Owen Sheridan.

  6. I just discovered this channel….its like walking into another Youtube heaven of knowledge and learning….thank you Youtube!

  7. Completely disagree with your statement on skyscrapers and imposing a 5 story limit on all construction. I am awestruck by the grandeur of immense high rises with incredible architecture. As long as the street on it has mixed use development and life, it’s totally fine. Plus it makes efficient use of expensive land.

  8. put “Along the River During the Qingming Festival” in for the live city thing!!#清明上河图

  9. Surprised greenery and pollution wasn't mentioned, countless studies show plants abilities to lift up our mood, not to mention improve air quality. Also the issue of enormous paved parking lots that occupy more space than the building they're for. Not only are they ugly, they make it so buildings are no longer in walking distance of each other.

    We should condense them into parking structures, or hide them underground. Or what's best is make large areas with buildings extremely close to each other with no room for cars, roads or parking lots. Instead a form of public transport will be the only way you can navigate inside these areas closed off to cars.

  10. Just about to start studying a town planning course and I've realised all of these steps in one way or another already.

  11. I disagree with almost everything you said. I like having the option to live in an area far from crime and people that I don't enjoy being around. I love having room to have a garden and walk around my neighborhood without the fear of people robing me. Maybe the idea of what kinds of cities are nice is different in the US than in Europe.

  12. I disagree about scale. A tall building makes me feel inspired when looking at it, a remarkable feat of engineering. Maybe it's because most 5 story buildings in my city are plain concrete boxes, but all of the towers are sleek, unique (for the most part), and beautiful.

    Also, I don't agree that tall towers worship the corporations housed inside. I don't know of a single company that has offices in any of the tallest buildings in my city (the exception is Telus Sky and the Suncor Energy Centre, because these buildings are named after their primary occupants)

  13. This video makes my heart ache. I'm from Alexandria, Egypt and Alexandria was one of the most beautiful cities. The old areas such as El Raml and El Mansheia are of the same architecture, orientation and design as Paris. However, in recent years not only ugly chaotic buildings cover Alexandria, the government is attempting to reconstruct Alexandria to block the sea from people and to replace everything with huge depressing grey structures. All of us at Alexandria feel the threat. They are now heading to one of the oldest and most beautiful areas, a forest by the sea called El Montaza and they have begun cutting down the trees and cabins to build ugly modern buildings.

  14. I would add a 7th item to this, which is history.
    Yes, I know, it is hard to create history on the spot.
    However, all cities we like are also really old besides a few.
    We mostly go there because of their culture and history, not because of their hyper-modern buildings.

  15. Yet people are leaving these old, attractive cities for young sprawling ones. In the end, people do want their own space and privacy and they need the opportunity that those large, enclosed office building and industrial centers bring. Their own little kingdom, a house in the suburbs with a yard. I live in sprawling Houston Texas and really enjoy visiting one of these attractive old European cities. But those attractive cities exhaust me. The crowding, the lack of privacy, the noise. It is such a relief to return to my quite, private sprawling green suburb and large, private home and yard. That said, Houston is unattractive but the good news is that is changing. Most areas of the city now have something close to the town square where people mingle and walk. I think that is what we need, a combination of the old and the new.

  16. Further reading that ties into the topic:

  17. Seriously, limiting the buildings to 5 storey? It can be implemented to most european cities which are mostly small ones about 500,000 people anyway but you can't do that to high density cities like Hong Kong, Tokyo, Singapore where space is vital and crucial that's why hi-rises dominate their skyline. I agree that more public spaces needed but the most important is greeneries anf enough space for sunlight. It's proven by some research that urban trees increases happiness thus attractiveness of the cities. Nonetheless, these perspective of beauty are so eurocentric.

  18. I'm an Indian and Why the fuk I'm watching this. Our gov is the best. they know how to feed a cow.?.. here the place where township changed to cow-worship

  19. I want interesting buildings to live in and to work in and to go to. Buildings with vast tall windows, colors, simplicity, art, plants, and never enough plants and water features all over. Aesthetics.

  20. We should only feel small because large mountains are nearby. Like in Ogden Utah. Or because the gulf of Mexico is your view like in Pensacola, Florida.

  21. If you live in the Phoenix valley in Arizona and you are fortunate enough to have a Giant Sajuaro in your yard, keep it, don't post it on craigslist like its a bother. Do you know how beautiful and rare they are? Well they are. If you don' t like desert botanicals, don't move there.
    Don't Philadelphia, Kansas City, or Seattle the exquisite Sonoran desert. Wake up and smell the prickly pears! See the Cactus Wrens and Roadrunners. Marvel at the Ocotillos. Oh and no vinyl siding ok. I don't care if your house has no exterior and its all you can afford. No siding. Thanks.

  22. I would not like an oil pipeline better if it were pretty. It's as much the contents of the stucture as the design. Were it transporting drinkable water, I'd feel differently about it.

  23. Ok so you are saying to not have a big city but then cut a 100 story building into 20 5 story ones idk because u live in NYC but yeah


    I can't believe you disabled comments on this because too many people were commenting about slavery and colonialism. You CAN'T OMIT colonialism when you're making a video about why poor countries are poor!!

  25. Most US cities are terrible and the few decent ones are insanely expensive because everyone wants to live there (San Francisco).

  26. Uh, don't show this to the NIMBYs in San Francisco because this is exactly the reasoning they're looking for to block any kind of new construction and make the housing prices in a relatively tiny city among the highest on the planet.

  27. How to make a popular City that's easy have affordable housing that minority people can afford and be happy . Get rid of the rich elites along with there multi billion dollar corporations and give people that cant afford and opportunity the chance to better themselves

  28. The problem is cities themselves. A city is vampiric; it exists only through the absolute exploitation and destruction of all things in its sprawling influence. Just consider how much water and food they have to import from around them. The form of a city itself is dehumanizing and grotesque. The answer isn't a new kind of city, the answer is a new form of architecture in the world which does not try to partition away people from their environments. No one can be happy stacked up like cordwood.

  29. My city is doing exactly that in one of the districts, its nearly completed, it prioritizes pedestrians and trams, and has its own squares with local materials and its own unique architecture where each building is unique but part of a collective.

  30. California cities such as San Francisco and LA people want out the fastest and here is recent data to prove otherwise

  31. What you said about Pont du Gard reminds me of an episode in one of the Asterix the Gaul comic books where he sees Romans building one of those fancy aquaducts and says, "The Romans are ruining the countryside with their new construction!"
    "Nice Buns Bakery" LOL!

  32. the free market is actually a good thing its just people need a little bit of rules for building but the more freedom the better and btw I'm not republican for liking freedom I'm acc democrat cuz I already know y'all was thinking that

  33. I saw this video around the time it came out, I was 19 and it really struck a chord with me. Now I'm 23, I'm studying architecture. I've probably referenced all the principles multiple times to my peers. Coming back to it now revitalizes my conviction of what's said here. Thank you so much for making this video, I hope I will be able to make it some justice.

  34. Actually I think it's the over regulation from government that restricts little powered individuals from having an influence and concentrates the freedom of expression into an elite group of powerful developers. Less regulation would make it easier for individuals to create beauty. Look at things like the Watts towers in LA that were created by an individual that wasn't in the elite club. Look at the amazing stuff that is created by unelected individuals without permission at the burning man festivals. Those ideas are so amazing and it's because people are given the freedom without having to be in the elite club.

  35. its show Dubai not beautiful how can it not be it looks beautiful and spend billions to build.
    Every city can beautiful if certain think can be taken into account.

    1- Clean
    2- green
    3- widget road and pedestrian
    4- a lot of gardens
    5- water flow from inside the city.

  36. See video of Grand Rapids city Michigan USA!!. This is now ranked the number city to live well in in America. Economy ranked number one in America too and 2nd fastest growing population. See the city skyscrapers and skyline and green spaces too? All balanced with brick roads, diversity, green spaces, artsy etc Any thoughts?

  37. I don't really know how to put it, but I think modern cities are just "different". Besides certain cities like New York, NY, most Americans living in a city are not going to identify with their neighbor in the sense of "we're part of the same neighborhood". I live in NJ and you basically identify with your ethnicity or demographic. Black, italian, korean, hispanic, etc. and it's really those sorts of things that "connects" people (amongst other things but that one is the most obvious). The fact that America as a whole is so polarized right now definitely doesn't help, but I do think there's something about modern life that makes acting on the suggestions this video provides, a lot harder.

  38. Uhm…online shopping anyone?.Almost everyone are online, they cant or wont go out to enjoy the outdoors.

  39. ALL City Skylines & Sim City players, class is about to start. Please take yours seats and get your notebooks and pens out!

    Thank you!

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