Skoll World Forum 2018 Closing Plenary | Dan Ariely, Gwynne Shotwell, Fred Swaniker

Skoll World Forum 2018 Closing Plenary |  Dan Ariely, Gwynne Shotwell, Fred Swaniker


(soft, inspirational music) – [Man] Once upon a time
a boundary was built. They called it a border, a way to control what moves where and how. We let the miles separate us. Forgot how to find each other. To this day, we have a habit of keeping problems at arm’s length. Our willingness to get uncomfortably close to be wrong out loud and keep pushing, to grapple our own demons in public, to love the world so hard, we start to remember how
close we actually are. – [Man] Welcome entrepreneurs, artists, activists, investors, scholars, innovators and resistors. Welcome to Proximity. – I invite you all to get proximate to the poor, the excluded. There is something waiting for you there and you will learn more. You will get more than you give. There is power in Proximity. – We cannot be complacent. When you see a moment, turn
it into something formidable. – Climate is already affecting
every single living being on this planet whether we
are aware of it or not. That woman in Bangladesh
or in the (mumbles), how is she not my sister? – With Proximity constantly increasing now and in the future, to be able to live peacefully without military conflict between us and people with whom we have an honest difference of agreement. All who look different
or who worship different. That’s the big question we face. – I am not a satistic. My people are not satistics. My problems are your problems. – The middle ground is
not the innocent victim. It is a passive
perpetrator within the rise of populist movements on
the left and on the right. – What would due diligence look like on Martin Luther King and Rose Parks? What would have funders asked to see? What would the metrics have been? If our current funding
norms continue to shape the way we do our work, what is possible around
fundamental change? – There are tens, hundreds
of millions of people in Africa that are reputable, hardworking, and they just want to be
part of the economic system. – As we are telling
people to come (mumbles), we also have to think carefully about what are we asking people
to come forward to? – When we think or when I
think about the question of media inequality,
you have to understand that media actually tells us our values. – Are you ready?
– Yes. – Information.
– Power. – Our strengths.
– Unity. (women speaking foreign language) – Thank you.
– Thank you. – The way to face the
challenges and crises that test us is not by erecting barriers, but by drawing on our
creativity and our compassion. We can see each other as fellow humans, each with much to give if
we disavow what divides us. If we explore and
discover what connects us. – I believe that to whom much
is given, much is required and I was raised to give a damn. We are all here because
we have been given much and we are ready to do what is required. – This is the 21st century. No one should have to
strike a match for light. No one should have to see
their income disappear due to drought and no one
should have to kill themselves while they cook a meal. – The values of public service
have everything in the world to offer a technology industry whose motto has been Move Fast and Break Things. But now it’s time to come
together and build things. It’s been said that government
is just what we do together. It’s also what we build together and it is high time that we
rebuilt it to work for everyone. – We need the passion and
the creativity of all, particularly those who live in poverty, to meet the challenge of building a world that’s actually truly inclusive. As a society, we have to stop confusing between intellectual poverty
and financial poverty. – Imagine a world without rape, without sexual harassment,
without assault. Where we could wear what we wanted. Walk where we wanted. Smile when we wanted. Trust who we wanted. Love who we wanted. – We believe like many of you in this room that those who feed us should
not go hungry themselves. We believe that Aminata and her friends are goin’ to change the world. This one is for the girls. Thank you. (audience applauding) – [Man] Everybody’s proximate. You’re always near to other people either through social media
or through instant travel or quick communications. There’s much more of a melding of people’s hopes and
beliefs, dreams and fears. We need to take advantage of that and not let it be working against us. Whenever we possibly can, let’s reach out to other people who are different, treat them with respect
and also treat them as equals to us. – [Announcer] Ladies and gentlemen, please welcome back Stephan Chambers. (audience applauding) – Good morning. Hello again and welcome again. That was the week that was. That was the week that featured
more of us than ever before. More events in parallel than ever before. A walk to freedom. A call to link arms. That was the week that was gray and rainy out there. That was the week that
it was incredibly warm and sunny in here. It was a week that celebrated, analyzed, agreed and dissented. It was a week of joy and love. That was the 2018 Skoll World Forum. It will live with me forever as a very special week. We missed Jeff, we sent him love and wished him speedy recovery. We said farewell to Sally, but we didn’t say goodbye. We welcomed six new awardees with their energy,
creativity and commitment. We supported each other with hugs, ideas and introductions. We did hard and serious work. We did hard and serious partying. Well at least you did, I didn’t. (audience chuckling) Proximity touched everything. It touched the
extraordinary new dimensions in Testimony Project bringing Pinchas Gutter’s
life to the room. It touched the co-creation of stories. Stories with and not stories about. It touched all our attempts to close gaps and bridge distance. Tashka Yawanawa’s commitment to Proximity took a week of journey
time from the Amazon to New York. Tashka, I’m so pleased you did. I learnt from you all again this week. Not just from the obvious things. Your warmth, your energy, your creativity, but from your commitment to each other and to this movement. I kept hearing people say, “I come here to recharge.” “I look forward to this
week to make me hopeful.” “This week restores my optimism.” “It’s lonely what I do “and this week makes me feel less lonely.” “This week makes all my neurons fire.” “Is that a wig?” I heard… (audience laughing) I heard a man say to Bryan Stevenson when they met from a wheelchair
at the back of this theater, “You make me feel less disabled.” You’ll all have your
special Skoll moments, small nuggets of energy
that’ll change how you are and how you do what you
do for another year. Here are some of the
favorite nuggets of mine and if you said one of these
things, you know who you are. It’s also about joy. We are entrepreneurs. The rest are antisocial entrepreneurs. (audience laughing and applauding) It starts when you say we. There is a market for compassion. Did tech move too fast and break too much? The world is at a reckoning. Don’t be a bystander. Let our job be one of listening. Local people are thinking
I don’t care what you know until I know that you care. There is an alternative to
there is no alternative. I could go on, but that’s why
we have archived streaming at the Forum. To stop me going on. You heard first about TED’s
Audacious Project on Wednesday. It’s my very great pleasure now to introduce a short film about it. Enjoy. (audience applauding) – [Woman] It’s time to do something big. It’s time to do something bold, to have a bold idea bigger than
anyone is comfortable with. – I’ve worked my whole career for a moment like this. – Do you think we can? Well yeah, if we really
really want to, yes you can! (rhythmic inspirational music) – This is the power of major philanthropy. This really works. (audience applauding) – Hello Skoll, hello heroes. This evening, Anna and I want
to share with you a dream. – Well change is driven by
people that are utterly devoted to a cause they’re passionate about. We call them social entrepreneurs. They’re inspirers,
persuaders, change makers, and they are heroes. – We won’t be investing
in shares to make money. We will be investing in
dreams to make change. This right now is the official start of the Audacious Project. (audience applauding) – In the next four years, Last Mile Health and
Living Goods will deploy 50,000 digitally empowered community health workers
to serve 34 million people across six countries in
West and East Africa. If our dreams don’t scare us, then they’re not big enough. – The Bail Project, by
bailing out 160,000 people over the next five years,
will become one of the largest non-governmental decarcerations
of Americans in history. – There are countless undiscovered
species in deep waters. Life in the Twilight Zone is intertwined with Earth’s climate. Decisions we collectively
make over the next decade will affect what the ocean looks
like for centuries to come. – Now many of you may know us. We are the co-founders of GirlTrek, the largest health organization
for black women in America. – We have an audacious plan
to scale our intervention. 1,000 organizers is not enough. GirlTrek is gonna create
the next citizenship school. – We are going to launch a rocket, and on that rocket will be a satellite. That satellite will collect
data about pollution that is warming the planet. – We believe that we
can eliminate trachoma in 12 African countries. We would be on the home straight
to eliminate this disease from the whole world. – Last year I’m proud to say
that One Acre Fund farmers planted eight million surviving trees. We estimate that last
year’s planting alone will eventually generate
at least $50 million in asset value for the families we serve while also improving our environment. The choice is ours. We are what we spend. Let us choose who we want to be. Thank you. (audience applauding) (audience applauding) – [Announcer] Ladies and gentlemen, please welcome to the stage Chief Executive of Doc
Society, Jess Search. (audience applauding) – “The time has come,” the Walrus said, “to talk of many things: of
shoes, ships and ceiling wax. “Of cabbages and kings, of
why the see is boiling hot “and whether the pigs have wings.” Good morning. That video, the launch
of the Audacious Project at the TED Conference
in Vancouver yesterday. Congratulations to the Skoll grantees Last Mile, Health and Living Goods, who are amongst the awardees
in this first round. (audience applauding) We had to share them with
the TED Conference this year. But their work reminds us
that we’re going to need both Proximity and Audacity
if we’re going to solve global problems and make pigs fly. Alice in Wonderland that
I just recited for you was written in 1865 by Lewis Carroll right here in Oxford. That reminds me that
whilst we seek Proximity with those who are
geographically far from us, we should never ignore what
is right here under our noses. I felt that this forum couldn’t pass without an acknowledgement
from a British citizen that there has been a
clear rise in homelessness in this city in the last 12
months since we were here. Last night, young people
were sleeping rough including right outside this very theater. It’s not right. For those of us inside this theater, we only have less than
one hour left together. I know, we better make the most of it. Our next and final three speakers have some pretty big ideas. Ideas for how to travel
to the future faster, some metaphorically and
some quite literally. SpaceX describes itself as a company that designs, manufactures, and launches advanced rockets and spacecraft. It was founded in 2002 to
revolutionize space technology with the ultimate goal of enabling people to live on other planets. Gwynne Shotwell joins the company in 2002 and is now President. Prior to that, she spent 10 years at the Aerospace Corporation. She’s authored dozens
of papers on subjects including and I have to quote, standardizing spacecraft
payload interfaces, conceptual small spacecraft design, infrared signature target modeling, shuttle integration and reentry
vehicle operational risks. Gwynne has spent her career
looking at the stars, and so I thought it was
appropriate to have a quick look at her stars this morning. She’s a Sagittarius. (audience laughing) Her horoscope offers this
handy advice for today. “A gathering could open the
door to new friendships, “interesting discussions,
and other group activities “you may enjoy. “The only downside is it
could involve mental overload. “You might learn so much today, “you can’t keep track of it all.” Skoll World Forum, I think we’re about to get mental overload. Please give a massive welcome to Gwynne. (audience applauding) – Thank you. (laughs) Good morning, I’m so pleased to be here. I’m so pleased to be
able to share with you some of the experiences and the activities we’re doing at SpaceX. I do believe what we’re doing at SpaceX will bring Proximity to the globe. (“Life on Mars?” by David Bowie) ♪ It’s a god-awful small affair ♪ ♪ To the girl with the mousy hair ♪ ♪ But her mommy is yelling no ♪ ♪ And her daddy has told her to go ♪ ♪ But her friend is nowhere to be seen ♪ ♪ Now she walks through her sunken dream ♪ ♪ To the seat with the clearest view ♪ ♪ And she’s hooked to the Silver Screen ♪ ♪ But the film is a saddening bore ♪ ♪ For she’s lived 10 times or more ♪ ♪ She could spit in the eyes of fools ♪ ♪ As they ask her to focus on ♪ ♪ Sailors fighting in the dance hall ♪ ♪ Oh man, look at those cavemen go ♪ ♪ It’s the freakiest show ♪ ♪ Take a look at the lawman ♪ ♪ Beating up the wrong guy ♪ ♪ Oh man, wonder if he’ll ever know ♪ ♪ He’s in the best-selling show ♪ ♪ Is there life on Mars ♪ (audience applauding) (audience chuckling and applauding) – I still get chills
when I see our videos. They’re fantastic. One of the reasons why
we make these videos is to bring back people’s
looking towards the stars, being excited about space
and space exploration again. For those of you who
don’t know about SpaceX, we’re a small company solely
devoted to the concept of building space transportation systems that will ultimately take
people to other planets. We’ve got our initial sights on Mars, but there’s plenty of
places to visit after that. We’re focused on rapid innovation and we actually have almost
7,000 people right now. Over $10 million worth
of revenue on the books and we’ve successfully flown the Falcon 9 and the Falcon Heavy
launch vehicle 52 times. We’ve taken the Dragon spaceship to the International Space
Station successfully 14 times. We’re doing this not
necessarily to make money. In fact, we joke that the easiest way to create a small fortune
in the aerospace industry is to start with a large one. But what we are focused on doing is lifting people’s eyes to the skies thinking about space exploration again and harnessing public imagination. The driving principles, these are relevant for any entrepreneur, set audacious goals. By the way, we were talking
about the audacious goals and I’m so glad this week
the Audacious Project was announced as well. It’s one of the founding words we use at SpaceX is audacious. Think big even if you fall short. You probably have done
something extraordinary. We have a relentless focus
on driving innovation and improving every cycle. You achieve that by
Proximity and by feedback, instantaneous feedback. We have a building block
approach to what we’re doing. We started with a small launch vehicle, little Falcon 1, flew
it a couple of times. Went to a bigger vehicle, Falcon 9. Glued three of those Falcon 9s together to form the Falcon Heavy, which you saw in the video first thing. Then our next project on
the launch vehicle side will be the big Falcon rocket
and the big Falcon spaceship. That will be the vehicle that ultimately transports people beyond Earth. Our people are our greatest resources. For sure, we walk that talk. It’s not just a saying we make. We could never do what we did without the workforce we have. They are extraordinary people
and they work hard every day, very similar to you all
here in the audience. Wanted to chat, just give
you a tiny bit of background on the company. I think it’s relevant
for entrepreneurialism. We started in 2002 and we ended 2002 with about 14 employees. Actually exactly 14 employees. I was the 11th employee at
SpaceX actually in 2002. This is my 16th year at
this extraordinary company. Since 2002, what have we achieved? We’ve launched 52 times. We will this year if we
maintain our manifest, we will have launched as many vehicles as our competitors who
have been in the business for many dozens of years longer than us. So we’ve launched 52 times. We’ve landed many times as well and that’s the key piece of
technology that’s necessary in order to look to the stars and take people to other planets. I’ll talk a little bit more about that. Rapid operational reuse. Imagine if airplanes
were like rockets today. Right now rockets are used once. You spend millions of dollars
building this capability and after it’s mission, you toss it or it tosses itself into the ocean. I think that’s a bad steward
element of the environment. Not only do we want to
reuse this capability so you can be more like an aircraft. Think about going from
London to Los Angeles if that aircraft was only used once, not many of us would fly and Proximity would have a very different perspective. We’d have a very different
perspective on Proximity. So we must be able to
make rockets reusable; that’s fundamentally what
we’re doing at SpaceX and achieving most recently. I’m gonna show you a video of how you do achieve great things. You start with failure. (cheerful war music) (rocket fizzing) (audience chuckling and applauding) I wanna give you a slightly
different perspective of landing a rocket. Instead of being third person, I want you to be first person. So imagine yourself on
the top of this booster and you’re coming home. This is slightly sped up
but not that much sped up. Hopefully you will all experience that. I’m gonna do another beauty shot of the brother and sister
boosters landing side by side after that extraordinary Falcon
Heavy launch in February. Yay. (chuckles) (audience applauding) We focused on the rocket piece. I do wanna talk a little bit
about the crew cabin piece. We are working with NASA. We are one of the two
companies that were blessed to have been given the very difficult but critical job of taking
people back to space. We are working diligently on upgrading the Dragon cargo ship, which currently takes supplies and food to the International Space Station. We’re upgrading that to be
able to carry astronauts again, which is an extraordinary program. We’re making great progress. We should have a vehicle
capable of taking people to the ISS later this year
and we will demonstrate that in an autonomous mode this year as well. Very exciting program. We got Falcon 9, we’ve got Falcon Heavy. We have Dragon. Now we’re gonna move onto the next vehicle and that vehicle’s incredibly exciting. That will be the ship
that takes people to Mars. But there’s also some other
things that vehicle can do that will help more people on
this planet gain proximity. (inspirational music) (audience applauding) I am particularly excited
about that capability rather than going to Mars. I can visit my customers
overseas in Dubai, in Riyadh, in London, and get home in time to
make dinner. (laughs) Which I also love doing, by the way. You take that spaceship, you leverage it to really change the possibilities and the transportation here on Earth. Then you can also leverage that ship to take people to Mars. To explore, to go beyond
where we’ve gone before. This is just a quick
summary of a thought piece on what an early settlement
on Mars could look like. Hopefully you’ve learned
a little bit about SpaceX, about what we’re tryin’ to do. The possibilities that are enabled with thinking about space transportation in a completely different way,
as well as leveraging that to bring people closer
together here on Earth. Thanks very much for
your time this morning. (audience applauding) Yay. (Jess mumbling) Thank you. – I have a real beginner’s question. I’m sure you get asked this all the time but I read the Men Are From
Mars and Women Are From Venus. I’m just wondering is the plan to send the men home to Mars
and we’re gonna go to Venus? Because I think it’s a lot closer, Venus. So, is that the plan? – Venus is a little closer but it’s toxic. (audience laughing) – Just good to clear that up. I have a more serious question for you. Star Wars or Star Trek? – Firefly. (audience applauding) – I have to ask you about climate change. It’s been a big theme
for our forum this year and obviously (mumbles)
been very outspoken and naming climate change is a
great threat of this century. Of course he took a stance in withdrawing from Trump’s advisory committee once the Paris Agreement
was kind of questioned. (audience applauding) So thank you for your
organization’s leadership on that. I just gotten kinda curious
if you have other projects or things in mind other
than the sustainability of the rockets, which you
spoke to which kind of guides what you’re doing thinking
about climate change. – There’s no question. Elon doesn’t have companies that aren’t focused on making our planet better and part of that has to be focused on what you’re doing to the environment. – That little fella. – Yeah exactly, and our children. There’s a number of things we’re doing. We’re moving away from
the carbon-based fuels that we’re using right now
on Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy to a lock methane system. We’re also assuring we
have enough capability of our vehicles so that not only do we not want to pollute the planet
by trashing the vehicles and dumping them in the ocean, but that we’re bringing
them back and reusing them. Then when they’re done, they
become monuments actually. There’ll be monuments
galore all over the planet of the rocket ships. So cleaner propellants and ensuring that we’re not just dumping all that metal. – Thank you and I also have to commend you on the leadership that
your organization also took over the recent revelations
around data and privacy. SpaceX deleted its
Facebook page, am I right? Was that a difficult decision
’cause I just have to commend you for kinda stepping forward and making a statement on the importance of protecting democracy and elections. – There are a lot of difficult decisions. I don’t think that was one particularly difficult decision to do. (audience laughing and applauding) – Gwynne, thank you so much. Thank you for joining us. So yesterday at the excellent Women and Climate Change Session, I was offered another truth
and correction moment. A community organizer from northern Kenya said to me that in the
opening plenary when I heard that celebrated the successes of women in the last 12 months, that I was celebrating drops in the ocean. She said that rural women like those in her community were still waiting for inclusion in decision-making. She’s right. It made me reflect that Proximity cannot just be a theme for
this years Skoll World Forum. It must remain a guiding principle for every year of this work. Proximity is going to be a journey and we have only just begun. But I offer no apology for
celebrating drops in the ocean, particularly when those
drops are as beautiful and inspiring as Agnes herself and I think we’re goin’
to see a picture of her. She’s here, thank you Agnes for the opportunity for
some truth and correction and to focus our minds on the
work still to be achieved. On that note, our next
speaker is on a mission to develop the African
leaders of the future. He wants to create the
next generation of ethical and entrepreneurial Africans. Those that can build
their own organizations and then contribute and
build their own countries. Fred Swaniker was born in Ghana, but he has lived and worked
in over 10 African countries. He’s been already recognized
as a young global leader by the World’s Economic Forum. He’s here today to tell us about his plans for the African Leadership University. I should also mention he is a Libra. Please welcome Fred. (audience applauding) – By the end of this century, 40% of the world’s
population will be African. But even more alarming to
me is the fact that by 2035, just 17 years from now, Africa will have the largest
workforce in the world. One billion people, larger than China’s and
larger than India’s workforce. Now 17 years seems very far away. But we’re here today to talk
about the proximate future, what’s happening just around the corner. Lemme put those 17 years
for you in another way. We have 6,205 days until we reach the largest
workforce in the world. Since January, that number has already dropped. 6,205 days are the number of days we had at the beginning of the year. We’re now sitting at 6,105 days. Tomorrow we’ll have 6,104. The clock is ticking. Imagine all those people
without education, infrastructure, health care, jobs, food and security. We’re sitting at the cusp of
a global humanitarian crisis of unprecedented scale. We cannot build enough walls, Mr Trump, to stop 40% of the world’s population from seeking better
opportunities elsewhere. They’re coming. They will be very proximate. We’re in real trouble or are we? Could this looming population boom also be one of the greatest
sources of global prosperity that will define this century? Because amongst this next billion is the next Elon Musk. Yes the founder of SpaceX, the company you just
heard of, is an African. Although you couldn’t tell it because he’s now got this
very fancy American accent. But he left South Africa when
he was 17 to move to Canada and he began this journey that
we all heard about just now. Or the next Dr Ollennu, the Ghanaian scientist from NASA, who led the team that
designed the Mars Rover robot that went to the Red Planet. What’s with all these Africans and Mars? (audience laughing) Or the next Spencer Horne, a young South African who graduated from one of my institutions,
African Leadership Academy, and is now building airships to transport cargo across Africa. Or the next Belinda Munemo, another graduate from the
African Leadership Academy, who’s building a chain of schools already educating 500 children
and employs 60 people. She’s only 28. The next Graca Machel,
who was on this stage a few years ago and received an award as one of (mumbles) icons. Treasures as they call them. The next Kofi Annan. The next Nelson Mandela. The next Desmond Tutu. The next Dr Chris Barnard, the South African who did
the first heart transplant. Yes, today you can get a heart transplant because of a South African. The next Danai Gurira, my college classmate who
just recently wowed audiences in the global blockbuster
movie Black Panther. Or her costar, Lupita
Nyong’o, Oscar winner. Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie,
globally-renowned author. The next Chiwetel Ejiofor,
Oscar-nominated actor. The next Clive Calder, the
South African musical genius who discovered Britney
Spears, Justin Timberlake, NSYNC and A Tribe Called Quest and so many other global entertainers. Gonna need some water, here’s water. That provide the soundtrack to our lives. Or the next Wangari Maathai, Nobel Prize winning environmentalist. The point is this. Africa has some of the world’s top talent. It just needs to be unlocked. The average age of an African is 19.5, whereas the average age of a
German or a Japanese is 46. So this youthful energy
could therefore unleash a massive source of
innovation and prosperity. Not just for Africa, but
for the entire world. As we’ve just heard from
what Gwynne shared about what another young African
has built with SpaceX. Now what would determine the future between the first Doomsday
scenario I painted and this much more exciting alternative? It’s one thing: Education. The quest for an alternative global future has been driving me and my colleagues of the African leadership
group for the last 14 years. We are on a mission to unlock
Africa’s treasure trove of talent before it is too late. We first started doing
this with a high school in South Africa called
African Leadership Academy where we would select the
most outstanding young people from every country in
Africa and develop them as leaders and
entrepreneurs, then send them off to top universities around the world. But after several years
of sending them off to universities in the US, and after seeing the tremendous need for education in Africa, we
thought we had to scale this up and to do it at the university level. But to launch any university
with a decent quality takes about maybe 300 years, right? It takes billions of dollars and thousands of professors. The only problem is we
don’t have 300 years. We have 6,000 days. We don’t have billions of dollars. We have almost no money. We also don’t have hundreds and thousands of qualified professors. For this task it is impossible
as it must have seemed in 1961 when US President John F Kennedy set the goal of putting a man on the moon in less than 10 years. – We choose to go to the moon. We choose to go to the moon. (audience applauding) We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things. Not because they are easy,
but because they are hard. – As impossible as it seemed, when Gwynne and Elon Musk set out on their journey to start SpaceX and to put people on Mars is educating hundreds
of millions of Africans in just 6,000 days
amounts to nothing short of a moonshot for education. A moonshot has three characteristics. First, the problem needs to be so large that solving it seems impossible. Second, the problem must
require a radical approach. You have to start over. You can’t use conventional methods; you need completely
unconventional methods. Third, the approach must
depend on some breakthrough in technology. So today, I want to share with you the unconventional, radical approach I believe we need in order to solve the global challenge at hand. First is I believe the
learning system we need must depend not on having
phenomenal teachers, but on fantastic students. I learned this from an experiment we did at African Leadership Academy. We were teaching a class,
a computer science class, but it wasn’t going so well. So we decided after a
while to scrap the class. The students came to us and said, “We really want to do
the computer science.” We said, “Well, what do you want us to do? “We don’t have a teacher.” We decided to do an experiment. We said “We’ll have you
take an online class.” But we didn’t believe
that online classes alone would be as powerful because
people drop out and so forth. Learning is a social activity
at the end of the day. We said, “Okay, you’ll come
together but you have to take “this class as a team.” So these students would get
together three times a week and they’d watch these lectures. When they got to a point
where they were confused, they would pause it and
the ones that understood what was going on would explain
to the others that didn’t. Soon these students were
learning how to code without a single teacher in the classroom. So six months into the school year, I was sitting with one of
the students in the academy I said, “What are your
favorite classes this year?” She says, “My computer science class.” I said, “How is that possible? “There’s no teacher in the class.” She says, “Yes, I’m learning
more from that class “and enjoying than any of our classes.” I said, “How did you rate the class “last year with the teacher?” “Six out of 10.” “How did you rate the class
this year without a teacher?” “9 1/2 our of 10.” That blew me away. We were able to offer a
better class at zero cost. This girl graduated from the academy and went to Stanford
to do computer science. (chuckles) Indeed. (audience laughing and applauding) I realized I’d been thinking about the problem the wrong way. Instead of designing a system
around a scarce resource, teachers, we need to design the system around an abundant
resource, which is students. Let them learn by themselves using technology that exists today. They have access to all the
information in the world now. Let them teach each other in peers. Haven’t you noticed that every time you have to explain
something to someone else, it makes you learn it
a lot better yourself? That was the big insight I got that you have to design
the system around students, an abundant resource and
not a scarce resource. The second thing I believe
this learning system must have is it’s ultimate purpose should not be to teach students facts and figures, but rather to teach ’em how to think and how to solve problems;
to create problem-solvers. How many of you? Think back to your college days. Think back to what you
actually studied in college. Just take a moment to think about what you studied in
college if you remember. Now I’d like to see a show of hands. How many are there actually
doing something today that is exactly related to
what you studied in college? I can see about maybe 15, 20 people. It’s never more than 10% whenever I ask this
question to the audience. We need to rather be teaching
people how to solve problems. Because when you become
problem-solvers, critical thinkers, and not facts and figures,
you can then come up with innovative solutions and then you can become entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs will create the jobs for this one billion we need. One of the things we really believe is the education of the future is
not about facts and figures, especially when you think
about what’s happening with artificial
intelligence and automation. A lot of things we learn
quickly become forgotten and will be done by machines. We need to learn how to solve problems above everything else and to apply those in entrepreneurial ways
to then create the jobs that this billion will need. Finally, this education
model must cost close to zero because we don’t have any money in Africa. Lemme show you an example of this educational model at work. (soft, inspiring music) (audience applauding) – I should review the
three principles I believe this education we need to rapidly scale up people in Africa’s gonna need. First, it must be student-centered. You saw how that worked that the faculty were not the ones telling the students
how to build that drone. Their own initiative, their own energy, their own grit, that’s what they used. It comes from a culture and the nice thing about culture is that it’s free. The second thing, we said
this about solving problems. If that isn’t problem-solving,
figuring out how to build one of the most sophisticated
technologies by themselves. Third, I said it needs
to cost close to zero. That education you saw, I
can tell you those girls can commute the best in the world, costs today as little as $500 per year. It doesn’t cost $60,000
like it costs to go to MIT or Stanford and so forth; $500 a year. We’re on a journey to take
that cost down to zero, which by September, we hope to have done. Our plans are to scale this to educate one million youth at a time so we can create several million even before the 6,000 days are over. Yet, we don’t need any
donor funding to do this. You’re might wondering
how is this possible? We figured out a model where
we raise funds from investors to finance the students’ education. It’s called an Income Share Arrangement. When the student graduates, they pay back a share of the income
back to the investors. What this means is that we’re not saddling our students with debt. We’re investing in ’em. If they’re successful and they get a job, then they pay a share of the income. If they’re unemployed, then there’s nothing for them to pay. Every now and then,
you’ll get an Elon Musk and you’ll get a share of the income. (audience laughing) That’s how we’re financing the system. (audience applauding) In conclusion, today we meet at Oxford, one of the most incredible
universities in the world. It opened its doors 1,000 years ago, 1096. Since then, billions of
dollars have been spent to produce hundreds of
thousands of graduates. Today, it costs $50,000 to go to Oxford. To go for a three year
degree here’d be $150,000. If we were to educate just 10 million, let’s just pick 10 million
Africans using Oxford’s model. It would cost us $1.5
trillion and take 1,000 years which we don’t have. We have 6,000 days. We’ve shown that by thinking differently, we can give Africans an
Oxford-quality education for almost zero up-front
cost from the student in a sustainable market-based way. The problem can be cracked,
but we don’t have time. We need radical, unconventional
solutions like this and we need to do this in
the primary school level, at the secondary school
level, at vocational schools. They’ve gotta focus on
being student-driven, making sure that people are
becoming problem-solvers and entrepreneurs at extremely low cost. We also need entire new
categories of skill development that don’t even fit in a box today. For example, should we even be
using the term universities? Should we maybe creating new
category of learning systems like a skills accelerator
or leadership accelerator? That’d give people an
initial dose of learning in maybe six to 12 months,
get them straight on to work, then work with them
through lifelong learning and give ’em doses of education and skills just in time as they need it. Right now, we have just in case education. We teach you all these facts and figures just in case they become useful. (audience laughing and applauding) This reminds me of a time when we had 17 years to solve
another problem in Africa. It was in 2001 and at that time, less than two million people in Africa had access to telephone lines. When they did, the lines
were terrible quality and ridiculously expensive. But then the mobile phone came along. Africa quickly abandoned any
plans to build landlines. Today, just 17 years later,
over 500 million people have access to telephones. A Masai woman can make a
telephone call to her cousin in New York with incredible
clarity for very low cost. We need to apply that same thinking today in order to unlock
Africa’s immense talent. We need a moonshot for
education in Africa. Now Gwynne just shared about their plans to take humanity to Mars and that’s a wonderful vision. I’m not planning to go to Mars. When I travel in planes,
I hate turbulence. I can’t imagine the
turbulence of going to Mars. I intend to be here 6,000 days from now on this planet. This mission to develop one billion people and convert them into problem-solvers, for me it’s not about helping Africa. It’s not about saving Africa,
it’s about saving the world so that we don’t have to go to Mars. It’s about taking these one billion brains and converting them into powerful energy of innovation, entrepreneurship,
to drive global prosperity and to solve many of the problems
we see in the world today. It reminds me of the movie Black Panther when they talked about vibranium, this incredible energy
source that’s in Africa. It lies in our youth and we
have incredible opportunity to ensure that the next 6,000 days is an era of unprecedented
prosperity and innovation so we don’t all have to go to Mars. Thank you. (audience applauding) Thank you. – This is such an important message. How wonderful you’re delivering it here in Oxford, as you say, the
home of one of our elitist educational organizations. I absolutely loved
everything you had to say. I have to ask, are you
gonna be able to devote a sliver of your time to
helping western countries to realize they shouldn’t
just let you leapfrog us? But actually we need to really question the way we’re running
educational universities in our countries, too. Have you been approached by people asking? (audience applauding) – I think that’s the whole point of this is many of the solutions
to the world’s problems actually lie in Africa. (audience applauding) What we’ve come up with is a
global innovation in education. It’s not just an African innovation. If we can produce people who can compete with the best in the world
for almost zero cost, this is an innovation. How many of you are paying tuition for your children right now? 60,000, hundreds of thousands (mumbles). So yes, this is something
we think needs to go global. Just like when the mobile
phone is invented in Africa, most of the innovations we
see in mobile technology today came out of Africa. For example, Pay As
You Go or Mobile Money, Apple Pay, all those
things we’re using now, it was first done in
Africa with (mumbles). If we think about climate change… Elon Musk, yes he’s a great innovator. But there’s thousands of
them on the continent. They’re just waiting for an
opportunity to be converted. – It’s absolutely brilliant. (audience applauding) – Thank you. – I have to just quickly ask
you about your own experience because you went to college in Minnesota and I wonder what that was like. It must’ve been really cold. – It was, Macalester. – Maybe there weren’t too
many other Ghanaians there. I was wondering was this the
beginning of this journey? Was that an experience
where you’re thinking what the heck am I doing here? – (laughs) I loved my time. I was at Macalester College in Minnesota. It was a fantastic place to go. Any (mumbles). There were many other
talented young people I left behind when I had the opportunity to go to Macalester. One of the things I
vowed when I went there was I would one day create an opportunity for millions of young people to (mumbles). – Well we believe in you. Amazing; thank you so much, Fred. (audience applauding) Okay, it’s the last leg. Our final speaker focuses
on human irrationality and uses science to identify
the behavioral tweaks, which can lead to the biggest impacts. He is a professor of psychology
and behavioral economics at Duke University and the founder of the Center for Advanced Hindsight. (audience laughing) Dan Ariely’s best-selling books include: Irrationally Yours and
Predictably Irrational. Now I don’t even think that
I’m predictably irrational. But I have to just let you know, Dan, that we are both Taurians and
we both have a warning today to expect an awkward experience. (audience laughing) Please give a rationally, enthusiastic welcome to Dan Ariely. (audience applauding) – Thank you. Good morning. First of all I should point out the reason I have half a beard
is not because I lost a bet. It’s because I was badly
burned many years ago, so much of my body’s covered with scars including the right side of my face in case you are wondering. I want to talk a little bit
about behavioral change today. When it comes to behavioral change, we often think the right thing to do is just to tell people
what they should be doing. If somebody’s not behaving in
a way that we think we should, they probably just don’t
have the right information. Let’s tell them what
the right thing to do is and then people would
immediately go ahead and do that. Is this the case? Let’s reflect a little bit
about our own behaviors. If you don’t mind, I’ll
ask you a few questions. How many of you in the last
month, and please be honest, how many of you in the last month have eaten more than you think you should? Just kind of a general statement. How many of you in the
last month have exercised less than you think you should? How many of you in the last month have at least once texted while driving? Please be honest. I know some of you just
don’t drive, so you say ah. How many of you in the last month have at least once not washed your hands when you left the bathroom? (audience laughing) It’s interesting, right? You say oh yes I text and drive, but I’m not willing to admit
that I don’t wash my hands. Two more questions, how many of you in the last
month have not slept enough? Everybody. Last question, how many of you have ever had unplanned, unprotected sex? Wow, that’s amazing. Very few, I’m impressed. (audience laughing) For most things, we realize knowing what’s the right
thing to do is no remedy, is no guarantee we’ll
actually go ahead and do it. What that means is when we
think about behavioral change, we need to take different approaches. What I want to do today
is to get you to think a little bit about social
science and about experience as a way to get better foundations on how to get behavioral change. How do we get people to save, exercise, take their medication, care
about the planet and so on. I’ll give you a couple of examples. Let’s start with example one. Imagine we want people
to save for an emergency, what’s call rainy day. In this case, we’re talking about some of the poorest people in the world. The experiment I’ll tell you about with it in Kibera, a slum in Kenya. People live on let’s say about $10 a week and we want these very very poor people to save a little bit. This is not for retirement,
it’s for a rainy day. Why do we care so much? Because the very poor have
negative income shocks multiple times a year. What happen when they have
a negative income shock? They have no extra money. Imagine you’re very poor,
you live hand-to-mouth. You have no extra money and
one day something bad happens. Maybe you have a goat and your goat gives you 20% of your income and one day, the goat is sick. Maybe you are sick or
maybe something happens. You have no extra income. You have no way to make
up this gap, you borrow. In Kibera, you might be
borrowing at 10% interest a week. Then let’s say four weeks
later, things improve. You yourself get healthy,
the goat is healthy again but now you’re four weeks
behind plus interest. Really hard to get out of it. For the poor the world over,
people who live hand-to-mouth, the moment something bad
happens, things deteriorate. We want people to have
a little emergency fund. Now what would happen if we told people, please hold your regular
wallet in your right pocket and hold your saving
wallet in your left pocket; just separate the money this way? What do you think will happen? They would spend the money. If you walk around even Kibera,
you have things to spend. You could buy more water, fruit. There’s all kind of things to buy. The first principle of
designing this system was to make not the wallet
that is in your pocket, but to get the wallet that
is easy to put money in and hard to get money out. Easy in, hard out. Because if its easy in, easy out, the money will come in and will go out. If its easy in, hard out, that might get people to put money in but not have an easy time getting it out. We teamed up with M-Pesa, the payment company in Kenya you all know. We created a system where
people could put money through M-Pesa very easy
through their cellphone. But every night, M-Pesa move the money to an investment bank. Now the money was in an investment bank. If you want take it out,
you had to take a bus. Go to the city, go to
the bank, fill a form, wait an hour, take a bus back. It could take you four or five hours. That’s on purpose. Why? Because you want people to
think about putting money in. But then when they get it out, to get it out only when
it’s a real emergency. You want people to have
access to the money when it’s a real emergency, but not have access to
the money all the time. That’s the starting point. Easy in, hard out. we gave it to lots and lots of people. Then we said okay, on top of that, we probably need to give
people extra motivation. People are not that interested in saving. It’s not as if you wake up in the morning and say to yourself what can I do today to increase my savings? We said what other
motivations can we give? Some people we just gave them that system, easy in, hard out. Another group of people, we
gave them the same system with a weekly text reminder that said, please try and save 100 shillings, about $1.00 this week. We just reminded them about it. Another group got the same reminder, but it was framed as if
it came from their kids. It says, Hi mom, hi dad. This is little Joseph, whatever
the name of the kid was. We knew the name of their kids. Please save 100 shillings this week for the future of our family. Using a little bit of guilt. I’m Jewish. (audience laughing) Using a little bit of guilt
in reminder of the family. Another group got a 10% match. We said, “If you save up to 100 shillings, “we’ll give you 10% match.” Another group got a 20% match, more money. Two other groups also got the match, but they got it together
with loss aversion. What’s loss aversion? In behavior economics, we have the sense gaining money is good,
losing money is extra bad. In fact, it’s twice as miserable to lose than the joy you get from winning. If today you lost $1,000, you would be really really miserable. If you gain $1,000, that’ll be happy but the happiness will be about
1/2 the size of the misery. Now if you think about somebody who is putting money in and getting more, they’re in the gain frame. We said how do you get people
to feel they are losing? Imagine you are in the 10% condition and you put 40 shillings in, you get four more at the end of the week. You gave up six, but you don’t see it. So we said, what if we gave
people the 10 shillings in the beginning of the week? Here is your full match,
put as much as you want. Now if you put 40, we leave
four in and take six back. Financially, it’s the same thing. But what it gives people is the sense of the money they are
giving up, loss aversion. Then the final condition, we gave people a coin about this size and we had number made on that coin. There were 24 numbers for
the 24 weeks of the program. We said, “Please put that
coin somewhere visible “in your hut and every week take a knife “and scratch the number for that week.” Week one, I saved/I didn’t save. Scratch it this way if you didn’t save, this way if you save. Now think about all of those methods. Now think the control condition. Text some kids 10%, 20%
beginning of the week, end of the week in calling. Which one do you think worked the best? I’ll ask you to vote. Not that your vote will change anything. But I want you to think
carefully about what you think. What’s your theory? What’s your prediction? Also please don’t
abstain; have an opinion. How many people think the
regular text worked the best? The regular text? Okay, nobody. Good, it didn’t. How many of you think
the text worked at all in fact compared to no text, texting people helped to some degree? Absolutely, it was very effective. Just wasn’t the best. How many of you think the text from the kids worked the best? Interesting, usually it’s people without kids that end this way. How many of you think 10% at the end of the week worked the best? Okay a few. 20% at the end of the week? 10% at the beginning of the week? 20% at the beginning of the week? How many people think the
calling worked the best? Okay, here’s what happened. You give that system to
people and people start saving even with no reminder. That’s a good thing. It basically says people
want self-control. It’s kind of like your program
that you think about it. That people save up front for the future. So you give people a
system with self-control and they already want it and start saving. A weekly reminder helped a lot. That’s great. 10% at the end of the
week helped some more. Financial incentives work. 20% at the end of the week, just like 10%. It turns out no difference whatsoever. 10% in the beginning of
the week helped some more; loss aversion works. 20% in the beginning of
the week, just like 10%. Kids were just like 10% and 20% in the beginning of the week. So if you think about having kids, they’re worth about 20% plus loss aversion (audience laughing) in terms of a motivational force. By the way, this is
amazing thing about kids. It’s amazing thing about kids
to think that reminding people about kids has the power of
20% match plus loss aversion? It’s amazing and I think
we don’t use kids enough. I don’t mean in the child labor sense. But if you think about motivation, parents are often incredibly
motivated about their kids. They represent the future. They represent kind of the
better side of ourselves and thinking about how
to use that in persuasion I think is very important. But the biggest surprise
of this study was the coin. The coin basically doubled savings compared to everything else. I have to say it surprised me. Now you can come up with
all kinds of theories about why the coin worked so well, but let me tell you how
I came up with this coin. I was in Soweto, a slum in South Africa. I was sitting in a place
that sells funeral insurance. If you know South Africa,
funerals in South Africa are very very expensive. People spend sometimes a year or two years of income on funerals. It’s their biggest celebration
of their lifetimes. In the west, we have weddings for example. In South Africa, it’s funerals. You could kind of reason which
one is more rational to do, but at least with funerals,
you have one in your lifetime. (audience laughing) So I sit in this place and
they sell funeral insurance. A father comes and he buys
funeral insurance for a week. Just to be clear what it means, it means that it would only be effective if he dies in the next week. These are very poor people. They buy small amount of soap,
small amount of insurance and he buys funeral insurance for a week. What he does then is he
takes the certificate of the insurance and in
a very ceremonious way, gives it to his son. As he does this I think to myself, what is this father doing? Now think about it in a general way. If you’re a breadwinner for a family and one day you decide to
take money and direct it to long-term savings or insurance, what is the family going to see tonight? They’re going to see less. If you’re very poor, they’ll see less. They’ll be less food on the table tonight. If they’re not as poor,
they’ll be less this week. If they are not as poor, it’ll be. But there’ll be something
less in the near future. If you’re a breadwinner, when do you get positive
reinforcement from your family? When you do visible stuff. So all of a sudden, we do
something that is invisible and this father, what he
was doing is he was saying, “It’s not that there is
less; it’s just different.” Our coin was trying to do the same thing. We asked them to put the coin in somewhere public in the hut. By the way, people don’t
visit each other’s huts. It’s just for the family. The coin was visible to basically symbol there’s another economic
activity happening in the family. It’s just less on a table and more here, but it’s not that it’s invisible. By the way, when you start
thinking about it this way, think about the nature
of money for a second. 2,000 years ago, how did we save? Basically with goats;
goats, chickens, whatever. The nice thing about saving
with goats is you can come home from the office and you
can see how many goats your neighbor has. We could compete on who has more goats. We could compete on savings. But then what we did was we invented money and then we invented digital money. We took this incredible
activity called saving and insurance and we made it invisible. Then we took another
activity called spending and made it extra visible. Now think about this competition. What do we care about? Things that are visible or
things that are invisible? Of course we debt in balance. We spend much more and
worry less about our future. There was this very sad study recently that showed that when
people win the lottery, their neighbors start spending more money. In fact, some of them
spend so much more money that they go bankrupt. Now I know what you’re thinking. These crazy Americans,
they will do anything. No, these were Canadians. (audience laughing and applauding) Good people. So if you think about this point, there’s this assymetry
between spending and saving, visible and invisible. The question is how can you solve it? So of course the coin is one approach. I’ll give you two other examples. One example, there’s on the US, there’s a saving plan called 401K. You go to a new job and
they ask you how much of your salary do you want to divert to long-term saving and
the company can match a little bit of it. Imagine some of you makes some money and now they take a chunk
of it and redirect it into long-term saving. That part is going to be
invisible to the family. Maybe it’s revisable in 30 years from now, but today it will be invisible. What did we do? We asked people to call
their significant other and discuss it. The moment you call your
significant other and discuss it, it’s not visible forever. It’s visible for the three minutes that you make that decision. Guess what, you discuss it, it’s visible, people save more. Another example. Imagine that you take a group of kids on the day that they are
born and you randomly open to half of them college savings accounts. You put $500 in this
college savings account. Then you go to visit those
kids on their fourth birthday and what do we find? The kids with college savings accounts have higher cognitive and social skills. How can it be? Before your kids know they
have college saving accounts? Of course not, they’re parents know. Once a month the parents get a statement that said this little kid has
a college savings account. You look at your kid and you say they’re still in diaper but they already have college savings accounts. People treat their kids
slightly differently, buy them a few more books, read to them a bit more. It’s not big steps but it’s
over a really long time. With this data by the way we recently… Last year we convinced
the Israeli government to open college savings
accounts for every kid from January 1st, 2017, on
the day that they are born. When we started this project, the people in the
Ministry of Finance said, “Let’s just reduce the cost of college.” It’s not the same thing. It’s not the same thing to have a kid that the parents and the
kid think of themselves as going to college. So that’s one example
of how you want to think not just about the big
picture but the small details. Once you understand the
true nature of money, you think about what’s visible,
what creates attention, what motivates people, what’s friction, what’s hard behavior. Now we can help people
redirect in a much better way. Let me give you another example. We wanted to help people lose some weight. We said how do we start? We said when do you think… When you walk around your house, when do you think about your health? What in your house
reminds you about health? The answer is almost nothing. (audience laughing) The one exception is the bathroom scale. So we said okay, so let’s
think about the bathroom scale. By the way, how many of
you have bathroom scales? Great. How many of you are looking forward to stepping on those things? (audience laughing) So we said what do we know
about the bathroom scale? The first thing we know is
it’s a really good thing to step on a scale every morning. Not so good to step in the evening. The reason by the way is
not that we weigh more in the evening, we do. But what happen if you step
on the scale in the morning, you remind yourself that
you want to be healthy, and you eat a little
bit less for breakfast. If you stand up on it in the evening, you just go to bed and
you forget by the morning. So it’s good to step
on the scale every day. The second thing we know
is weight fluctuates a lot. So we talked about loss aversion. In weight, it’s gain aversion. You gain two pounds, lose two pounds. On average you don’t change your weight. You just up and down, up and down. High misery, slight happiness. Hight misery, slight happiness. (audience laughing) What’s the overall average effect? We’re not looking forward
to this experience. It’s mostly bad news. (audience laughing) The third thing we know
is that people expect changes to happen very fast. You go on a diet and you step on the scale and you say to yourself
I’ve been on a diet since yesterday morning. (audience laughing) I’ve eaten nothing but
salad and I went for a run and now look at my weight. Nothing has changed. In fact it went up. Now what happened is the behavior… The time where you start
changing your behavior to the time it has an effect can be about 10 days to two weeks. But we don’t have this intuition. So what do we do? We expect changes. So you’ve been on a diet for four days. You step on the scale and
you went up by 0.7 of a pound and you feel terrible. Then you take a day off
break and you have Netflix and cheesecake and you step
up on the scale the next day and now your weight goes down. It’s confusing and demotivating. So what did we decide to do? We said let’s create a
scale with no display. If stepping on a scale is a good thing, let’s get people to step on the scale and if they step on the
scale in the morning, let’s say congratulations,
you’ve done your job. Let’s give people feedback on an app but not in terms of pounds. Let’s do it in a five point feedback. You’re just the same, nothing happened. You’re just the same, congratulations. By the way, medicine in health, nothing happened is a really good news. You’ve aged another year with nothing bad. Congratulations, great news. Then we look at the trend. Here is what happened
in the last three weeks. Nothing happened, slightly
worse, much worse, slightly better, much better. It’s a running average
of the last three weeks. We tested this system. We went to a call center. We took a group of about
1000 low income obese people. Some of them got the regular scale and they gained a little
bit of weight every month. About 0.3% of their body weight
every month for five months. The people who got our scale lost 0.7% of their body weight every
month for five months. Now think about how beautiful this is. You take this very simple
social science approach and you look at daily things
like money and wallets and scales and if you just
think about them the right way you can change behavior. Let me just summarize with the following. If you look at the last,
I don’t know, 300 years. A lot of what we have done as humanity is to handle our physical limitations. Think about this amazing auditorium. We have seats, we have
stairs, we have lights. We need heat, we need
cooling and when you have all of those things and
we’ve basically invested a tremendous amount of money
and effort and motivation and energy and innovation
to basically overcome our physical limitations. We can travel great distances very fast. We can do all kinds of amazing things. What about our cognitive? What about our mental limitations? What about our ability
to think about money? Our long term well being? Our happiness? Our health? I think that’s kind of the next frontier and that’s where social science and behavioral economics can help. The good news is that if
you take those approaches and we even look at the very simple things like money and scale and so on, there’s lots of improvements. Thank you very much. (audience applauding) – They’re standing up for you. – Thanks. Thanks. – Dan, come sit with me.
(Dan chuckling) We’re all tired, it’s
the end of a (mumbles). So this is your first Skoll World Forum.
– Yup. – You didn’t need to go to such an effort by the way with the– – Nobody told me. – Have you done work on climate change? ‘Cause surely that is the archetypal area where we are not behaving
in the rational way in which we need to. We know that the majority
of people all over the world now believe that climate change is true. It’s real, it’s happening and it’s caused by human activities and yet
we’re not moving forward. Are you working on that and if you’re not, can I get you to pay recompense for your extremely off-color joke by committing to do so
right here, right now? – First of all, it’s true. Global change is the worst problem from a social science perspective. Think about all the
things that cause apathy. It will happen to somebody else. Sometime in the future. We don’t see the progress. We don’t see any specific
person suffering. We just don’t care. All the things that cause apathy, they come together in global warming. It’s a very tough problem. Of course everything we will do is a drop in the bucket as individually. One of my students, did a very nice project on trying to understand the people who don’t believe in climate change. Here is what he did. He took a group of people who, let’s just call them republicans for this, but I really mean it’s
a short cut for people who don’t believe in climate change. (audience laughing) – Actually that’s old,
white conservative men, quite specifically. I think young women
republicans are just fine. Genuinely, they are just fine. – Okay, let’s not use that term. He took a group of those people, divided them into three random groups and one group he said, “How big is the problem
of climate change?” Those people said, “Not a big problem.” Another group he came and he said “You know, the thing about climate change “is if you want to solve it, “you really need more
government regulation. “You need more rule for this. “How big is this problem?” They said not a problem. The third group he said, “The solution to global
warming, climate change, “is less government intervention. “More small business, support the economy. “How big is the problem
of climate change?” Huge. The finding here is what
he calls solution aversion. The people that seem to deny the problem don’t deny the evidence. We just think, let’s
give them more evidence. They just don’t like the solution. Imagine I told you you
had some medical condition and you just can’t eat chocolate. What would you say? I don’t have this problem. (audience laughing) The people who deny that the data, I think one of the questions is are they truly denying the data or do they have some
really deep motivation to deny the data? So I think we need to do that. The other things we do need to work on if you think of the experiment I described to you in Kenya when we said people don’t
seem to care enough. If you think about all of these problems, not saving and so on, it’s just we don’t seem to care enough about our long-term well
being in all kinds of ways. The question is how can
we take our long term general understanding of what we want and bring it to short-term motivation? How do we make it easy? How do we make it actionable? How do we get pride and motivation? If you think about the
coin, how do you get a daily joy from doing
something that is good for you in the long term? That’s the key. – I’d love to know you’re
doing more work on it and perhaps we can speak
further about that. My final question. You’re familiar with Alice in Wonderland, which I chose for its fantastic
absurdist irrationality. Which character from Alice in Wonderland do you most relate to? – Maybe the Mad Hatter. (audience laughing) – I hear a bit Cheshire cat. I feel long after you’ve gone, the smile will still be here. Dan, thank you so much.
– Thank you. (audience applauding) – Oh and they’re back. The lights are down, the lights are up. So I wanted to say something
directly to Jeff Skoll because he may be watching on
the live cast; I don’t know. I hope he’s not watching on the live cast ’cause I think it’s about
4:00 am where he is. But I just have this
feeling that he may well be. So I just wanted to say
to Jeff good morning. Thank you for another
incredible Skoll World Forum. Please get some really well deserved rest. And yes, huge round of
applause for Jeff Skoll. (audience applauding) My final task is to hand you back over to your MC, Stephan Chambers. Please give him a huge round of applause. He is truly the host with the most and my very very dear friend, Stephan. (rhythmic music)
(audience applauding) – Thank you Jess, thank you Dan. Those of you who have
done this kind of thing, will know that back there, you can’t hear so they give you headphones. So when they move down here, someone came and took my headphones away. So I have no idea what was said for the last five minutes. But I did catch one thing
before that happened which was the 20% plus
loss aversion thing. I did ask him not to say that because my daughters are in the room and it’s what we non
economists call inflationary. (audience laughing) So I’m back here to close off this extraordinary event
and I wanted to start with a very personal
debt of gratitude to you, to this community and to this movement and to thank you for building it. For developing it. For having invented it and for having supported me over the last 15 years of creating this forum and for laughing at my hair. Listening to my introductions. I could go on, but I won’t. We began this week, we began our forum, with poetry and we’re
gonna end with music. Lakou Mizik take Haitian music to the world. Or rather they try to because moving around the planet is orders of magnitude harder
for them than it is for me. Only one of the Lakou Mizik band made it through the tangle of visa awfulness to get to the UK in time for our evening. Eight of his colleagues
were sent from Haiti to the Dominican Republic. They spent four days there. They went back to Haiti. Their passports went to Jamaica and they didn’t get here. They may also be watching in live stream and if they are, send
them our love please. Those people who didn’t make it. (audience applauding) So rather amazingly and some of you will guess how this story ends. Rather than accept this
unjust equilibrium, Allo Black’s band from
yesterday has agreed to join forces with Lakou Mizik and Steve Valcour to perform for us today. (audience applauding) Somebody said wow. Thank you. That’s partnership. That’s social entrepreneurship Thank you all for making
better things closer. Lunch, the new dimension
in testimony project. Virtual reality films
await you at (mumbles) Travel safely. See you next year. Enjoy the music and thank you. (audience applauding) – [Narrator] Lakou Mizik
is a musical collector from Port au Prince. Formed in 2010 after the
devastating earthquake struck Haiti, the group
celebrates their nation’s vibrant music and history and honors the healing spirit
of their collective culture. (chanting foreign language) (speaking foreign language) – [Narrator] Lakou Mizik mixes
socially conscious lyrics with Vodou, rap and roots music for a soulful blend that reflects African, French, Caribbean and US influences but is 100% Haitian. (singer vocalizing foreign language) – [Narrator] The multi-generational
collectives members range in age from late 60s to early 20s representing Haitians from
all different walks of life. (singers vocalizing foreign language) (speaking foreign language) (singer vocalizing foreign language) (speaking foreign language) (singing foreign language) (speaking foreign language) (speaking foreign language) (speaking foreign language) (singer vocalizing foreign language) (speaking foreign language) (singers vocalizing foreign language) (audience applauding) (singer vocalizing foreign language) Thank you. (audience applauding) My name is Steve. I come from Haiti in
the name of Lakou Mizik. Usually we used to be eight on stage but unfortunately (mumbles)
had a problem, a Visa problem. We could not get here and I’m so sad the whole band is not there to bring you the real big taste of
what Haiti’s all about. But at the same time, we
here with a bunch of brothers from here UK so to mix UK to Haiti, I guess it’s a good thing. Speaking of the power of proximity, I guess music bring people together and this is a really good thing. Thank you. (audience applauding)
(rhythmic music) (singer vocalizing foreign language) Let’s bring some heat from Haiti. (singer vocalizing foreign language) (audience applauding) Thank you, merci. In Haiti we say merci for thank you. Merci, thank you. We definitely need more bridges not walls. This song said every time
the Conga is playing, our strength just doubled. In Haiti everything we
do, we do it with music. When we woke up in the
morning, we mumbling something. Then in the afternoon we mumbling or singing something together. Brings the family together and we will realize that every
time the Conga is playing, our strength is doubling. Ayibobo means blessing. Anytime I say Ayibobo,
that’s mean blessing and thank you for everything. (singer vocalizing foreign language) (audience applauding) Thank you. Ayibobo! Let me hear it. Ayibobo!
– Ayibobo! – Great. Back in Haiti, that
last song is gonna bring the country of Haiti (mumbles). They call it Rara style. It’s kind of corny, one horn
corny with the (mumbles) walking down the street
and then thousand of people behind the band walking. They call it Rara and it’s
mostly before carnival and in the carnival. So you feel free to dance and join us. Thank you very much. (singer vocalizing foreign language) (audience applauding) Thank you, UK. Ayibobo!
– Ayibobo! – Ayibobo!
– Ayibobo! Thank you very much. (audience applauding)

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